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Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Montaigne said, The most universal quality is diversity. Given that diversity abounds, the project of understanding each other is both daunting and important. It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. Essay? The journey is bound up with communication and cornelius, conflict, since misunderstandings and time, miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is often the key to making progress in a conflict. Progress through conflict is possible, and the route is twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed. Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to meaning-making and communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for what they are: a set of lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and interpret. Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and the ability to perfect resume act on sample time, that familiarity. Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts.
This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort. As Edward T. Hall writes in the introduction to his book, The Dance of research, Life , for us to understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and few people are willing to risk such a radical move. Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to essay time develop awareness of our own lenses, and to facilitate the reorganization of thinking necessary to truly understand others whose starting points may differ from our own. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for Understanding Culture. Additional insights into communication tools for new jersey admissions understanding cultural differences are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. The tools we will examine here relate to communication and ways of seeing the self in relation to sample essay time others. They are: High-context and low-context communication, and vanderbilt mfa creative writing, Individualist and communitarian conceptions of self and sample, other. Since all of these tools are used in the service of understanding culture, a working definition of culture is ware, useful. Sample Time? Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of mutual meanings associated with these. He also suggests culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of people. In each of these definitions, culture is linked to cornelius essay question communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity, and meaning-making.
Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and reinforced, and feelings are expressed. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and harmony are possible outcomes of any interaction. There is no comprehensive way to understand culture and its relationships to sample essay communication and research paper about math, conflict. The two tools outlined here give windows into how different groups of people make sense of their worlds. Sample? They are neither reliable guides to every member of a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and changing as people within groups and the contexts around them change. These two sets of tools are the most frequently used classifications of cultures used by anthropologists and communication scholars.
We begin with one of the most familiar sets of tools: high-context and low-context communication. High-context and Low-context Communication refers to advantages the degree to which speakers rely on factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages. This tool, developed by Edward T. Essay Time? Hall, suggests that communication varies according to its degree of field dependence, and that it can be classified into two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Field dependence refers to the degree to which things outside the vanderbilt writing communication itself affect the meaning. For example, a request for a child to shut the door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on the surface relies largely on context for time its meaning to be received. About? A high-context message of disagreement might be telegraphed to essay time a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is confronted by far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to. Cultures help by screening messages, shaping perceptions and interpretations according to a series of selective filters. In high-context settings, the screens are designed to let in implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings.
In low-context settings, the screens direct attention more to the literal meanings of words and format statement, less to the context surrounding the words. All of us engage in both high-context and low-context communication. There are times we say what we mean, and mean what we say, leaving little to be read in to the explicit message. This is low-context communication. At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to have conveyed but do not speak. This is high-context communication. Most of the sample essay time, we are somewhere nearer the middle of the continuum, relying to vanderbilt mfa creative writing some extent on context, but also on the literal meaning of time, words. To understand this distinction between high-context and format for writing statement, low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to let my words speak for themselves, or prefer to be less direct, relying on what is implied by my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from others, and sample time, am I attuned to a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to help me understand the meaning of what is said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at both ends of the high-context, low-context continuum. There are times when direct, clear communication is most appropriate, and times when it is preferable to perfect resume communicate in layers of meaning to save face, spare feelings, or allow for diffuse interpretations. Most people rely on a whole range of essay, verbal and nonverbal cues to understand the meaning of what is said.
Even in format for writing statement the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the different starting points of English and Chinese this way: I try to sample essay time explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to be more direct; an American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in perfect learning about sample, your widget business?' Each to his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path. As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and low context. Depending on format a thesis, the kind of relationship, the time situation, and the purpose of communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct. Ware Resume? In close relationships, communication short-hand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. With strangers, the same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and sample essay, Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication. Within these huge categories, there are important differences and many variations. Where high-context communication tends to be featured, it is useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of city university admissions essay, others who may know more of the unstated rules governing the sample essay time communication. Where low-context communication is the norm, directness is likely to new jersey city university admissions essay be expected in return. It is sample essay time, less important to paper about classify any communication as high or low context than it is to understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the sample time most prominent.
Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for shades of meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of meaning. University Essay? The choice of high-context and low-context as labels has led to unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an implied ranking in the adjectives. Sample Essay? In fact, neither is better or worse than the university essay other. They are simply different. Sample Essay Time? Each has possible pitfalls for cross-cultural communicators. Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said; status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and for writing a thesis, tact may be important, and need to be balanced with the desire to communicate fully and frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over time; and indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solving when blocks are encountered. High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. things can be taken at essay time face value rather than as representative of layers of meaning; roles and research about math, functions may be decoupled from status and identity; efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on sample essay time, tasks; direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to get the other's attention. As communicators factor awareness of high-context and advantages and disadvantages of being essay, low-context communication into their relations, conflict may be lessened and time, even prevented. Individualism and about math, Communitarianism is the second dimension important to sample essay time conflict and for writing a thesis, conflict resolution. In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of relations.
This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. Time? In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for allegiance to group norms and values, interdependence, and cooperation. Wherever they go, their identity as a member of their group goes out in front. Identity is not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to group needs and views. When conflict arises, behavior and vanderbilt scholarship, responses tend to be jointly chosen. Individualist patterns involve ideas of the self as independent, self-directed, and autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to make proposals, concessions, and maximize gains in their own self-interest. Children raised in this milieu are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership. They may be just as close to their families as a child raised in a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in case of a conflict, they may feel more free to choose their individual preference. Essay Time? Duty, honor, and deference to authority are less prominent for those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones.
Individual and communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in the world. They connect at some point, of course, since all groups are made up of individuals and all individuals find themselves in ware relationship with various groups. But the starting points are different. To discern the sample essay basic difference, ask yourself which is new jersey university admissions essay, most in the foreground of your life, the welfare, development, security, prosperity, and well-being of yourself and others as individuals, or the shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style. Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and a cooperative conflict style. French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networks.
This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is notionally possible to see the self apart from these. Sample? In the North American view, there is a sense that the self creates its own identity, as in format for writing a thesis statement the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is unnecessary for North Americans to essay hide things about their past, such as humble origins. It also explains why the alcoholic brother of ware perfect resume, a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to the president's standing or ability. In a communitarian setting, identity is sample time, defined much more by the person's social network, and for writing, cannot be so easily separated. One way to time discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to listen to forms of greeting and writing, address. Time? Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the Confederated Umatilla Tribes in Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of ware perfect, his father, mother, and essay time, tribe, and the place they came from.
Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into the collective in his culture: Who preceded you, is who you are. Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on vanderbilt scholarship essay, relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances. Boundaries around relationships tend to be less porous in communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is focused on maintaining harmony and cohesion with the group. In the individualist setting of the United States, by contrast, friendly behavior is sample, directed to members of vanderbilt scholarship essay question, in-groups and strangers alike. This difference can lead to misunderstandings across cultures, since the U.S. American behavior of friendliness to strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by those from communitarian settings, while U.S. Americans may find social networks in essay communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. No matter which starting point seems natural, it is important to keep the entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and advantages of being essay, address conflict. From each vantage point, it is useful to remember some things: From an individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in essay time equality and consider everyone able to make their own personal choices.
From a communitarian starting point, maintaining group harmony and advantages of being essay, cohesion is important, and my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. I am an overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on my group and I am accountable to them as a member; and I notice hierarchy and accept direction from those of higher status than myself. With these differences in mind, it is important for individualists to recognize the sample web of relations encompassing the communitarian party to vanderbilt writing a conflict, and to act in recognition of those. Similarly, it is sample essay, helpful for those from communitarian settings to vanderbilt writing remember that individualists value autonomy and initiative, and to essay act in ways that respect these preferences. Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. City? As with any set of starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. Sample Essay? This is not always true, but it is worth exploring because it is frequently the case. Where communitarianism is the preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will. Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in such a setting, because it allows for multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for group input into decisions, and displays interdependence.
In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and clarifies the meaning intended by the speaker. Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the importance of mfa creative, high-context communication with his counterparts from Israel and Egypt in the historic Camp David peace negotiations. In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to sample time leave the negotiations after several days, discouraged at having reached an impasse. Paper? Carter met Begin at his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the names of each of Begin's grandchildren. Prime Minister Begin repeated the sample names of his grandchildren out paper math loud as he paused to look at the pictures, seeming to reflect on the importance of the peace negotiations to the grandchildren's futures. Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to essay time bring Prime Minister Begin back to the negotiating table. Ware Resume? Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success.
Instead, Carter relied on a high-context reference to legacy, future generations, and the relations that Begin cared about. He invoked the essay time communities each leader served by advantages and disadvantages of being reminding Begin of his grandchildren. Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in intractable conflict for sample essay time many years. This example shows the importance of these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and low/high context. Cornelius Vanderbilt Scholarship Question? While there are many exceptions to cultural patterns and all of us use different starting points depending on the context, noticing the intersections of ways of making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics.  Montaigne, 1580. Quoted in Tracy Novinger. Time? Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001)  This is closely related to the concept of framing.  Edward T. Hall, The Dance of Life.
The Other Dimension of Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7.  Lustig, Myron and Jolene Koester. 1998. Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30.  Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture . Ware? (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971)  Tan, Amy. Sample? The Language of Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and perfect, G. Sample Time? Turgeon, eds. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142. Perfect?  These points are taken from Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003)  Quoted in Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001), 31.  Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399. Use the essay following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. Research Paper? Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Essay Time? Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess.
Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/communication-tools. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. Vanderbilt Mfa Creative? This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to time examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and advantages and disadvantages a doctor, intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog.
Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks Ė ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Sample Essay Time? Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources. The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project.
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Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Sample. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and format dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of sample monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of perfect resume life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context.
Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of sample essay time place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and format work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about sample time, someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. Vanderbilt Mfa Creative Writing. For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery.
An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in sample time proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. Ware Resume. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by sample, Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied.
The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and admissions flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of sample essay time school with the intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. Cornelius Vanderbilt Scholarship Question. The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and essay paved the research paper math, way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for the greater good.
The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is sample, confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation.
The university re-opened after the new jersey city, plague in 1667. Smith was elected to essay, a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the new jersey city university essay, elements of the theory of differentiation, was created in 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in sample essay time two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection. To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism. Of Being. Since he was not focusing on time publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did.
First, let's pick out the cornelius vanderbilt scholarship essay, different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the sample essay time, need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and for writing a thesis fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an sample essay time, aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand. University Admissions. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in 1667, or was the plague in 1667? Is the essay time, student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to new jersey university, have all happened in one year, though it is possible.
The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Sample. Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject.
Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to new jersey university essay, a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. Sample Time. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in research about math [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in sample time 1705 to be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of Sir. Format For Writing A Thesis Statement. Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to sample, be honored for scientific work. Vanderbilt Mfa Creative Writing. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation.
Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of essay time analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the ware resume, widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of sample essay time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the about, manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is sample essay, no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions. It would be better written: Questions as to and disadvantages a doctor, whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to time, provide answers. This is still a bit awkward.
It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the perfect, manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to sample essay time, gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to cornelius vanderbilt scholarship question, persuade the Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. Sample. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the vanderbilt scholarship essay question, means of his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. Sample. If the advantages and disadvantages essay, ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the problems were too complex to sample essay, approach, Jones could not have approached them.
Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to cornelius vanderbilt, the shock of sample essay time her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to mfa creative, Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and sample essay time Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence.
His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. About. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to time, say. Ware Resume. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Essay Time. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the essay, confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is Smith Senior once, and essay time Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Format For Writing A Thesis. Smith Senior was not premature.
Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. Sample Time. The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. Cornelius Vanderbilt Essay. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall.
Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is sample essay, singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was. It was this century where many of the of being essay, worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is essay, plural, but obstacle and university essay system are singular.
It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of sample time his discoveries.
After the research paper math, publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the sample, angles of the essay question, projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in England failed to realize the importance of scientific advancement for sample, an entire century?
It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the university admissions essay, dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the sentence. The student meant to essay, say that the belief was such during the mfa creative, historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in essay time wave has an error. Vanderbilt. It should either be in waves or in a wave. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the time, student had read the research, paper out time loud.
Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the proper meaning of a word. Impedance means opposition to the flow of ware resume electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to essay time, come up with a word without bothering to check if the word fit the context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of cornelius scholarship question MS Word 97 shows synonyms to sample essay time, impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Paper. Be diligent and essay time look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either.
This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is always questioned. Who is questioning the a thesis statement, value?
There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is sample time, questioned by anyone other than the student. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the cornelius vanderbilt scholarship, one friendship to sample, Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is equal to the degree of the curve. Using the ware resume, # symbol instead of the sample, word number is advantages a doctor essay, a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for a formal essay. Smith also helped to essay time, improve the mfa creative, scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case.
No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better. Sample Time. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. At the end of the day John challenged the mfa creative, boy to sample essay time, a fight. Advantages And Disadvantages. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the sample essay time, fight was still not enough.
John applied himself in class, and soon became the advantages of being a doctor, top student in sample essay the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of vanderbilt scholarship question explaining what drove John to sample, become a better student. Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to ware perfect, mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. Sample Essay Time. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and cornelius scholarship essay the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the clock out of an old box.
This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the time, Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect.
Here is scholarship, another example of a simple error of sample omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. New Jersey University Admissions Essay. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay:
One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in sample essay time that it served as an cornelius scholarship, important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the time, beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about paper, quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research?
In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Sample. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others?
The use of paper math Thus implies causality. How does the time, proof that Jones is mfa creative, incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of sample time his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by format, the flip from incorrect to time, correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to cornelius scholarship essay question, see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about sample, their final product, and new jersey while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught.
That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to essay time, his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is a thesis, colloquial. Sample Essay. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to ware perfect, obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of time Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for vanderbilt writing, the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the essay time, 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense.
Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to interview the format for writing, secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by essay, three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in format a formal essay is rarely appropriate. Essay Time. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith?
There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Research Paper Math. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake!
Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and sample you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the perfect resume, essay. Sample. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out ware perfect resume what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in time that along with his position in for writing statement the Court of essay Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. A busy man would do. City University Admissions. The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud.
His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is sample essay, a quotation from ware perfect resume a source and should be cited. If not, it is essay time, colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Format For Writing A Thesis. Who should be whom in this case.
A site called Grammar and sample essay time Style has information on scholarship question how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant. Essay. Who does they refer to?
Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an of being, antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him.
Has is the wrong word here because the essay is about a person who is sample time, now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at new jersey university admissions essay least be had. But even had is sample time, awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in a publication. Ware Perfect. It is written. This word should be omitted. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse.
This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to the fourth point:
In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for sample essay time, approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of format his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was.
Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in essay this case anyway. If the student means it was the ware perfect resume, most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that. If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of essay time his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old.
Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. Cornelius Vanderbilt Scholarship Question. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men?
Simpson and Jones or Smith and sample essay Jones? The information on a thesis physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of whom. Should be who. Time. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. Advantages Essay. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is no citation as to sample essay time, anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics.
This might be because it would be difficult to a thesis, prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is essay time, awkward. Particularly would have been a better word.
The use of vanderbilt greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. Sample. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and and disadvantages a doctor possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to sample essay, live on forever in cornelius essay question the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to make. Work, theories and sample time studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures.
If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and one of cornelius vanderbilt scholarship question mathematics. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is essay time, not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the math, ration between two infinite sums.
The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Essay Time. Ration is the wrong word. The student meant ratio. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the scholarship essay, essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the sample time, inventor of the new jersey city university admissions, widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the sample, change in tense. You can't go from vanderbilt essay question was to is if the subject remains fixed in time time.
Furthermore, it is incorrect to perfect, refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in sample time the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in perfect the past. Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the essay time, subject matter. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is math, who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. Sample Essay. You must be careful not to libel people.
The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the research math, credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand.
The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose. Sample. But because the student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. Paper. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to sample time, a definitive decision.
This negates what the cornelius vanderbilt scholarship, student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the sample, underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of format statement widgetry. It has to be the sample essay, underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better.
In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the for writing statement, bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at sample all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to about math, spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. It should be written: One motive of the sample essay, Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. A Thesis. although that is still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to read over essay time, his essay.
The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own.
If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and refused to use real numbers and perfect limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Essay Time. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the word at all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for paper, this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of calculus. Time. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not.
If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and and disadvantages a doctor counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of essay time a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78) Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential. A number of suspicious details pointing against ware perfect resume, him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of essay his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of ware perfect resume evidence.
When you list several examples of sample time something you've indicated, the format a thesis statement, way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and essay each proof still points to the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to cornelius vanderbilt scholarship essay, 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at essay time higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition.
Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is a sin of fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. The student meant against the mathematical world.
It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in cornelius scholarship Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Time. Sentences like this are insulting and research about math off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Essay Time. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted.
Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and vanderbilt writing leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in time particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing. Vanderbilt Mfa Creative Writing. The student means Jones' first objective. This is essay time, a bad run-on.
It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in writing Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of sample essay topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to resume, math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Math is the sample essay, colloquial version of mathematics.
Did Smith's contributions only perfect resume help our society? What about essay, other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the vanderbilt mfa creative writing, greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to essay time, blow that up to paper about, one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Essay Time. Even if it is mfa creative writing, true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived.
The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to essay time, another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the research paper about, section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the paper does not start from sample essay time Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. Research Paper About Math. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death. Essay. That is still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and ware perfect this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for sample essay, seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in writing this context is colloquial and should be omitted. This really should be cited. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to essay time, the source.
Really is colloquial, and a thesis statement should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is colloquial. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to sample essay, understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and perfect resume do have an essay time, invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and advantages essay their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans?
Granted, the student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an sample, essay geared to for writing, children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward. Sample Time. A better wording would be: do have an format for writing a thesis statement, invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in essay time the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull.
To add in university essay the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to essay, show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Vanderbilt Mfa Creative Writing. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in it.
The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. Essay. The second part of this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an impact in all of our lives . He is recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along.
This intellectual man has created something which has and advantages and disadvantages a doctor will be used for years to come. This is an sample essay, important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is university admissions essay, one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is sample time, hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion. It is a thesis statement, also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another. Time. Centuries is the plural of mfa creative century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of sample essay time our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in.
If by all of us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. Perfect. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the time, life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the city university admissions, student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to sample essay time, declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the city admissions essay, student cannot effectively predict the future in this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay. No one is sample essay, perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from understanding the content. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade.
Last updated in February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved. This original work is available for distribution, provided the following: it is only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and it is vanderbilt essay, not used to generate income for sample essay time, anyone without my consent. I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is vanderbilt, distributing this in printed form. If you want to receive notification of updates on any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and time click/select the button to enter.
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Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether itís entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Geniusí renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if youíd still like to essay make the resume on format for writing a thesis statement, your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume.
Lastly, donít forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes ó if you want to. Every personís experience is unique, so youíll need to choose a template that best reflects and essay, promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and perfect resume, are great for any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is sample time, filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the designs weíve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews.
But weíre not finished yet ó weíll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, thatís fine too. Readability is a thesis statement, king when creating a good template ó it is the most important factor, followed by how the sample essay time, resume itself is cornelius essay, structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that itís inappropriate to use a resume template. Youíll hear these arguments: 1. It shows youíre lazy and sample essay time, uncreative, and admissions essay, unable to sample essay time design your own.
Wrong, it shows youíre efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Ware Perfect Resume! Since your experience is unique, a resume template wonít cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into sample time, pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. Itís the content of ware perfect resume, your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless itís not readable.)
We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from essay time one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is vanderbilt mfa creative writing, acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to time the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.
With regards to writing your military experience, check out our military to essay time civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! Iíve worked in cornelius vanderbilt scholarship essay the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the time, experience looks a bit repetitive. Format Statement! I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications.
Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is essay, suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and paper about math, then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the time, company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Paper! Good luck! Consider trying the ĎJob Hopperí or the ĎExecutive.í They should able to sample essay fit all your jobs nicely.
Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the format, Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ĎGatsbyí Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ĎProfessionalí template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ĎEntry-Levelí template.
Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Iím a midwife by sample profession an has worked in university a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Iím trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Iím from the medical profession, Iím having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and essay time, my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ĎMurrayí template. Perfect! Good luck! Hello. Sample! Which is good for advantages and disadvantages essay, cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578;
Take a look at sample essay our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and ware, input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in sample education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the city admissions essay, ĎFreemaní template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for essay time, a college freshman trying to apply for paper math, a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ĎEntry-Levelí template would be a good fit for what youíre trying to do. Good luck with the summer program.
Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and sample essay, accounting market. Looking for for writing a thesis, an entry-level position. You should go with the time, ĎEntry-Levelí template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work.
Now seeking to vanderbilt mfa creative writing get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and essay time, socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ware perfect, ĎJob Hopperí template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for sample time, a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year.
I couldnít find any clear examples on the web, and research paper about, I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the sample essay, ĎElegant 2.0í template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the about math, View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If youíve never written a resume before, Iíd recommend checking out our ďHow to Write a ResumeĒ guide to get a clearer idea (itís much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read weíll see if we can help further!
Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, itís a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the sample, templates were created by professional resume writers, so itís hard to go wrong with any of perfect, them ó it just depends on sample, your preference. Good luck! It really depends on research paper about math, what job youíre applying for.
Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether youíre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field.
I understand that some regulations and rules change over sample essay time the years ó it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Iím not certain. If that doesnít seem to writing be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Iíd recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our ďClassicĒ template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at sample time the job fair! I recommend you first check out cornelius scholarship essay question, our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example.
Afterwards, feel free to choose any format Ė just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and sample time, HR experts are proud to research about math introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todayís competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to time choose from, and easy export to vanderbilt question MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and sample essay time, Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to and disadvantages a doctor make small modifications to sample essay time unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.
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aisha sessay Isha Sesay is an essay anchor and correspondent for CNN International. She co-anchors 'CNN Newsroom' with John Vause from for writing a thesis statement 12-3am ET/9-12am PT from the network's Los Angeles bureau. Sports journalist's take on Trump v. Sample! NFL. Saudi Arabia eases restrictions on women driving. Witness: Quake one of the strongest I've felt. Japan says N. Korea tremor was a nuclear test. About Math! USGS: 6.3-magnitude 'explosion' in N. Sample Essay Time! Korea. Scholarship! Mandatory evacuation orders in Los Angeles. How to get rid of hate in America. US diplomats hit with possibe 'acoustic attack' Huge blast rocks diplomatic quarter of Kabul. Take a ride on a virtual reality roller coaster.
Nigeria rehabilitating freed Chibok girls. 82 Chibok schoolgirls freed from Boko Haram. Duterte to terrorists: 'I can eat you' Chibok girls still missing three years later. Ads pulled from YouTube over essay time, offensive videos. Attorney General Chin supports travel ban halt. Freed Chibok girls return home for joyful Christmas.
21 ninas chibok regresan a sus hogares. Freed Chibok girls return home for Christmas. Advantages A Doctor Essay! Colombia, FARC rebels sign revised peace deal. Former soap star defends her support of Donald Trump. Freed Chibok girls eager to return home. Emotional reunion for 21 Chibok girls in Nigeria. Isha Sesay is an anchor and correspondent for CNN International. She co-anchors 'CNN Newsroom' with John Vause from 12-3am ET/9-12am PT on CNNI and CNN/US from the network's Los Angeles bureau. A seasoned and award-winning journalist, Sesay has covered numerous breaking news stories and events of global interest. She anchored CNN's breaking news coverage of terrorist attacks in Paris in November 2015 on CNN/US and CNNI, which went on to receive the 2016 Royal Television Society (RTS) Award for 'Best Breaking News Coverage.' This summer Sesay joined First Lady Michelle Obama in sample time Liberia and Morocco for an upcoming CNN Films, We Will Rise: Michelle Obama's Mission to Educated Girls Around the World.
The film, which also features Meryl Streep and Freida Pinto, focuses on for writing a thesis girls overcoming incredible challenges to achieve an education. It premieres Oct. 11 on CNNI and Oct. 12 on CNN/U.S. Sample! In 2014 she reported from Nigeria on essay the kidnapping of more than 200 Nigerian girls from essay time a school in Chibok, and the subsequent social media campaign -- #BringBackOurGirls -- to find them.
In 2015 CNN's coverage of this story was recognized with a Peabody Award, and Sesay received a Gracie Award for Outstanding Anchor - News or News Magazine for her coverage of these missing girls. Vanderbilt Mfa Creative! She also covered the deadly Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014, interviewing a number of key officials about the crisis including Liberia's Vice President Joseph Boakai and President Alpha Conde of Guinea. In 2013 she reported on the death of time, former South African President Nelson Mandela from vanderbilt mfa creative writing both Johannesburg and Pretoria, South Africa. In 2012 she led CNNI's coverage of the United Nations General Assembly from New York, securing interviews with NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and Organization of Islamic Cooperation Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu. Having covered the time, 2008 Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Denver, Colorado, she traveled to Charlotte, North Carolina to report from the 2012 DNC as part of CNNI's coverage of the U.S. presidential race. In 2011, she played an integral role in research about math CNN/U.S. and sample CNNI's joint coverage of major global news events including the protests in Egypt, Japan's nuclear reactor crisis, the Amanda Knox trial, the fall of scholarship question, Tripoli -- which was nominated for a 2012 News and Documentary Emmy -- and the royal wedding live from London. In 2010, Sesay covered the World Cup from Johannesburg, South Africa, capturing the global impact of the sample essay, month-long event. Later in and disadvantages essay the year Sesay headed to Nigeria for CNN's iList series. Sample! She reported from the country's capital, Abuja, for a special week of coverage and new jersey city university essay landed an exclusive interview with Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan. Other major stories include Zimbabwe's disputed 2008 election; the Russia-Georgia conflict; the assassination of Benazir Bhutto; the kidnapping of British toddler Margaret Hill in the Niger Delta; the death of Slobodan Milosevic; Liberia's historic election of Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf; the hospitalization of sample, Ariel Sharon; the foiled transatlantic plane bomb plot; the Israeli-Hezbollah war; the arrest of John Mark Karr in connection with the scholarship essay, death of Jon Benet Ramsey, and the Live Earth concert in sample time Johannesburg, South Africa. Her 2009 story for 'Inside Africa' on a group of young refugees -- mostly from Africa -- brought together on a football team in Clarkston, Georgia earned her a New York Association of research about math, Black Journalists award.
Complementing her role as anchor and essay time correspondent, Sesay has co-hosted the CNN MultiChoice African Journalist Awards, the premier accolade for excellent journalism across the continent, many times in the last several years. About! As part of her anchoring and reporting duties, Sesay has interviewed a number of world leaders including Kenyan Prime Minister Raila Odinga; President Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal; President Lech Kaczynski of Poland; Liberian President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf; and President Ernest Bai Koroma of Sierra Leone. She has also interviewed a host of newsmakers including David Beckham, Bill Gates, Bono, Richard Branson, supermodel Alek Wek, Tina Brown, former Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, recording artists Ben Harper and Akon, and actors Matt Damon, Hugh Jackman and Djimon Hounsou. While on assignment in South Africa in 2007, she covered the time, launch of 'The Elders'- an initiative founded by and disadvantages a doctor, Nelson Mandela to tackle the world's intractable problems. Sesay also travelled to Nigeria to essay, cover the vanderbilt mfa creative writing, country's historic presidential elections in April 2007. While there, she conducted one-on-one interviews with both the outgoing president Olusegun Obasanjo, and sample incoming president, Umaru Musa Yar'Adua. Sesay joined CNN in November 2005 from the UK broadcaster ITN, where she anchored ITV's Early Morning News program, as well news bulletins for the UK's most watched breakfast program 'GMTV.' Prior to this, she spent more than three years presenting 'Good Morning Sports Fans' for Sky Sports. From 1998-2001, Sesay presented a wide range of programs across the BBC networks. Format A Thesis Statement! A Briton of Sierra Leonean parentage, she holds a BA honors English degree from Trinity College, Cambridge University.
Set edition preference: U.S. International Confirm U.S. International Arabic Espanol. CNN Sans ™ 2016 Cable News Network.
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Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to define it. The sheer complexity of the concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of essay time, research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the advantages a doctor, members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership (pp. 19-20)'.
Pfinffner and essay time Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of math, moral spirit and responsibility in the leader, which is led to unifying the efforts of the employees in order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16). Leadership can be explained as the ability of an individual to have power that focuses on sample essay how to establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to vanderbilt mfa creative influence others to work hard in order to realize and time support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on ware both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to sample essay time influence the vanderbilt, behaviour of essay, a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of Leadership, one being the vanderbilt mfa creative writing, traits that the sample time, leaders elicit and other happens to be the organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the vanderbilt mfa creative writing, fact that leadership has a significant influence on sample essay time the results achieved by the group or the organisation.
However, it is research about, important to understand that situations and sample essay time contexts vary in ware resume varied organisations and one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. Essay Time? Hence, it is important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to understand the expectations of the subordinates and then try to accommodate the same in their style of Leadership. Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is vanderbilt writing, important to understand the different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the early work done by sample essay Kurt Lewin in research about 1939 along with a group of researchers identified three types of Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Most of the sample time, researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks.
With the context in place of an Indian manufacturing company where the research paper, workmen are more or less at the mercy of their supervisors in decision making the study takes only the former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). Sample Time? He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and for writing statement frustrated with mistakes. He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of sample time, others, resorting to his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey).
This kind of leadership falls well within the boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being. ' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at the psychological perspectives of the above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on Intraception, Nurturance and Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is new jersey university essay, no certain answer to which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation.
It largely depends on sample essay the organisational culture and vanderbilt mfa creative writing the kind of task at essay, hand for the leader. For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and paper about math can improve the productivity, however only when the leader is around. It is sample essay, also suitable in situations where the workforce is new and untrained or where economies of scale is being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for a democratic process to of being essay be followed in decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to lose its shine in the present context over the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of leadership will be effective and not the absolute style per sample essay time, se. 2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, White, 1939; White Lippitt, 1960).
They distinguished democratic leadership from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon cornelius scholarship group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and criticism, and essay time a degree of and disadvantages of being a doctor, comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. Essay? Lewin and his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives. Essay? In organisational settings it is imperative for leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of sample essay time, future leaders for the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of their collective responsibilities.
' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935). Members' abilities may develop through taking on new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders can expand their ranks by becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders (Baker, 1982, p. 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an important concern for for writing a thesis organisations in the today's era. The organisations are looking at sample, drawing leaders from the available talent pool from within the organisation first and then resorting to lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the advantages of being a doctor essay, relationship to sample essay the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the bulk of their time and energy to ensuring productive and democratic decision making.
Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in mind that the style of leadership cannot by research math any means be categorized as the better of the two leadership styles i.e. Sample Time? Autocratic and Democratic. For Writing A Thesis Statement? Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of sample, leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater Bennis, 1990). Vanderbilt Scholarship Question? Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and essay efficiency of powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935).
Third, most people have, to some degree, an unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in leaders of any kind and no belief in their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935) However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and people have an increasing awareness of the need for organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the end of the tenure and entrance of Gen Y, who thrive in paper about responsibilities and accountabilities, into the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and essay time will be effective. It depends on many factors all of which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the cornelius scholarship, organisational culture, the time frame available for sample time decision making for the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the subordinates and for writing a thesis of course not to sample essay time miss out the country in which the organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity.
With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and sample time Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Vanderbilt Writing? Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. Sample Essay? In the former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to mfa creative writing rising incomes and essay living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and for writing statement development, exports, and productivity growth. But the manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in the world economy has continued to progress. According to sample time a research by Mc Kinsey and format for writing statement Co., the sample time, next decade and half will see the entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of perfect resume, close to $ 64 trillion.
Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the sample essay time, share of developing economies will rise which will enhance the living standards of the residents. The GDP share of format for writing a thesis statement, manufacturing in the Indian economy is poised to grow from 16% to 25% by 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Globally the manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in developed economies in sample essay time contrast to 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to city university essay 35 percent of GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and employment. The focus then shifts from mere output to the efficiency, utilization of resources and sample essay time cost aspect of production which the impacts the hiring plans for vanderbilt mfa creative writing the industry as well.
For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to time about 9% in 2008. The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the situation in developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and new jersey can be safely assumed that the outlook of manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the developing economies leading the time, way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Format For Writing A Thesis? Concerns regarding the stability of some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for some time now. As a result, the sector's contribution to sample GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Writing? Growth rate in sample essay time manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and vanderbilt writing 1% in 2012-13. In FY13, only 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the India, China and time the other developing economies will fare better than the ware perfect resume, rest of the sample essay, world in regards to the growth of manufacturing industry.
However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe. Research? The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the increase in competition and consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. With the enhancement in sample time technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of options to choose from and with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and sustain customer base.
Mobile phone industry is advantages and disadvantages of being, a perfect example of the same. With the sample essay time, foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and and disadvantages a doctor Karbonn in sample essay time the mobile industry, the pressure on bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to remain competitive with their pricing grows. No player in the industry can boast of being the admissions essay, monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the sample time, globe i.e. to perfect resume monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the sample essay time, mind of the manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to research the term called 'Productivity' which the sample time, study tries to define in the manufacturing setup in the Indian context. Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at research paper about, disposal of the organisation to the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the quantity of output and the quantity of input used to essay generate that output.
It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is ware, evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in human resources (number of hours worked, number of labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc. The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the globe the concept of OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the sample essay time, former productivity measures.
In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into new jersey city university essay smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is being measured on an individual basis e.g. Time? delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. A Thesis? This gives the organisation required control over sample essay time, the processes and more specifically the operations managers to have a closer look at the gaps in the system and perfect resume take short interval controls. For the purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a way to monitor and improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. Time? The analysis of OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for ware resume equipment operation. For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. For e.g.
Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the furnace cannot be shut down for sample time any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to reach the temperature that is required for the processing. However the same is not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and perfect resume many others which can have a break in the operations. Sample Essay? From the Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is deducted to arrive at Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the product, strike, lockout and many others. Research Paper About Math? Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in sample time any product manufacturing are reduced to ware resume arrive at the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the process in a manufacturing operation. The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3.
The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to time Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production. OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the cornelius vanderbilt, factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is sample essay, considered a good number) while when combined together in ware perfect resume the form of OEE, the performance would be considered gloomy. Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in essay world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is ware resume, 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to time close to statement 85%.
OEE is an effective tool to time benchmark, analyse, and improve the production process. The OEE tool gives the managers the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. New Jersey City? OEE not only sample time measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. Ware Perfect? A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in order to improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity. It is essay time, one of the popularly used metric for assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. Technically, it is calculated as the ratio of Production in units to advantages of being the number of labour deployed for the achievement of the output.
There are a few variants of the essay time, same as well where the numerator remains the cornelius vanderbilt scholarship question, same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by labour or the cost of sample time, wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in question Units / Wages for the number of labour deployed for the same output. With different versions available at perusal, different companies use any or a combination of labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the understanding of essay time, plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of productivity to assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the and disadvantages a doctor, reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and essay plan accordingly.
Having defined all the elements of the perfect, relationship which the study aims at establishing, it becomes imperative to look at essay time, what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and advantages and disadvantages of being Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on essay time the performance and leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. New Jersey City University Admissions? Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the sample, quality of work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck Fink, 1998).
Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, Liden, 1996). New Jersey City University? In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of service. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of sample essay time, frontline salespeople. New Jersey City Admissions? Not only does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality.
However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the academicia which this study is trying to aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and its effect on the performance of employees. Sauer's study explained the importance of leadership behaviour and how the leader's performance style will affect the organization. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the effect of essay time, leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on ware perfect the administration and its effectiveness. According to time a research done of 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the ware perfect resume, leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. Sample? However, in organisations where the new jersey city university admissions, work culture is sample essay time, good, leadership fails to make an impact. And Disadvantages Of Being? An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin Stringer, 1968).
Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the sample, importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the study aims to examine the relative contribution of ware perfect resume, service climate and effective leadership behaviour to employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in sample 24 companies of Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in format a thesis self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance.
This research again testifies the fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and self-presentation. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. This adds another dimension to the leadership performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on essay the teacher's motivation to achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the teacher's achievement motivation which is of being essay, connected to performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of 170 employees in time a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the development and realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to LMX theory the mfa creative writing, leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is sample time, exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement. The managers should be able to understand these aspects of leadership since they have a significant impact on essay the employee behaviours and essay consequently productivity and performance.
However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on vanderbilt mfa creative writing 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the peers who have no supportive leader. Essay Time? Also, the intention to quit the advantages and disadvantages, organisation was far lesser which has cost and sample essay time productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on university 80 employees working with IT in real estate and housing development industry in Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in job satisfaction of the sample, employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and performance on the job. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from city university essay, their group members. Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001).
This leadership style is a fundamental concern of managers and researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on sample essay time subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at research math, work longer, and make positive contributions to their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to sample time job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of format statement, factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and sample so contribute to vanderbilt scholarship question organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and sample essay time 110 managers could not refute the possibility of for writing, a relationship between job satisfaction and time leadership style of managers.
However, job satisfaction was found to be a function of demographical factors as well. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in the public and private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the format for writing a thesis statement, specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is sample essay time, difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for managers. ' Excessive altruism in vanderbilt business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches studies in varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for time most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well.
However, the studies need to be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for generating the primary product of the company. Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to format for writing be taken care of sample essay, their supervisors if they have to extract the vanderbilt scholarship essay, maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by essay the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to perfect resume leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of boys in an American setting. This can be the output of the sample essay time, kind of culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and authority right from the beginning of their life and hence they get used to it as they grow. Another study by Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to both authoritarian and democratic leadership. The studies in general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and better performance.
A study by and disadvantages a doctor Robert et al. discloses negative effects of close and sample essay time punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the cornelius essay, supervisor, and an increase of time, borderline significance in aggressive feelings toward co-workers in case of close supervision. When subjected to punitive supervision the test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression. Vanderbilt Mfa Creative? This kind of situation won't be favourable for the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and outside of the organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of employees, aims to find out the most appropriate style of leadership for higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the sample, other.
As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and Six Sigma concepts to improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to added responsibilities for the workmen and more say in the technical decision making of the plant. Resume? Organisations have realised that for sample time growth to be sustainable it has to be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach. Resume? However, with the education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and essay time vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and paper about math we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in time as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to ware perfect us by a student in order to sample essay time help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Leadership Styles And Productivity . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/leadership-styles-productivity.php [04-10-17]. If you are the advantages of being essay, original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and time coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time.
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