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Yahoo!-ABC News Network | 2017 ABC News Internet Ventures. All rights reserved. Elementary School Bans Homework Amid Growing Debate. JGI/Tom Grill/Getty Images. More than 550 students at a Massachusetts elementary school will have less to carry home in their backpacks this year. There will be no homework. Kelly Elementary School in Holyoke has banned homework for lines the year with the exaples of essays, intention of best first lines essays, giving students all the conclusion, instruction and extra help they may need during the school day. “We want kids to go home tired; we want their brains to be tired,” Jackie Glasheen, principal of the school, whose kindergarten through 8th-grade students are nearly all poor and Hispanic, told ABC News.
At home, she said, “we want them to engage with their families, talk about their school days and go to bed.” Glasheen and the team of teachers who came up with the idea to best lines essays, end homework are among a growing number of U.S. educators and parents questioning the value of having children do schoolwork at new jersey university admissions, home. A Texas elementary school teacher last month drew wide attention by eliminating homework. Brandy Young, 2nd-grade teacher at an elementary school in Godley, wrote parents in a letter shared widely on social media, that after much research over the summer, she would not assign any homework except for of college uncompleted classwork. Research has been unable to prove that homework improves student performance, she wrote in the letter handed to parents at a meet-the-teacher night Aug. New Jersey City University Essay? 16. Best First Lines? Rather, I ask that you spend your evenings doing things that are proven to correlate with student success, she wrote. Eat dinner as a family, read together, play outside and get your child to bed early. Kelly Elementary School eliminated homework under circumstances uncommon in ucla question, most schools. Beginning this fall, nearly all schools in first essays, the Holyoke district, which has among the lowest standardized test scores in Massachusetts, are extending their school days by two hours. Elementary school students now go to rules writing, school from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., instead of the previous 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Principal Glasheen said her school surveyed its teachers, parents and students before implementing the homework ban.
The toughest stakeholder group was the teachers, she said. Best First Essays? Some of statement records, them felt [students] need that extra practice. They need that extra work. But Glasheen said the longer school days will give students more instructional time. First Lines Of College? “Face time with a teacher … is going to impact their learning more than doing skill-and-practice work at home,” she said. Not many schools are lengthening their school days by as much as the new jersey city university essay, Holyoke district. But even without the longer days, a number of educators and researchers say homework is more of a hindrance than a help to students. Author and of college essays education researcher Alfie Kohn says homework routinely produces frustration, exhaustion, family conflict, a loss of of essays, time for other activities and diminished excitement about learning. “In classrooms and schools where little or no homework is assigned, results have been extremely positive in best first essays, terms of students’ academic performance as well as their attitudes about learning,” Kohn told ABC News. Essay National? “‘No homework’ should become the default, with homework assigned only on those days when there is lines, compelling reason to believe that a given assignment will benefit most students.” Kohn, whose books include The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing, said research has failed to demonstrate any benefit to assigning homework, at least until students are in high school. But Robert Pondiscio, senior fellow at writing conclusion contrast, the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, an education policy think tank in Washington, D.C., said the of college, question of homework's value is essay, not cut-and-dried. Pondiscio, who is also an adviser at Democracy Prep, a New York City charter school network, said homework may have a greater benefit for low-income students than affluent students. “I still think we’re in a situation in of college, this country where we have a far greater problem of expecting too little -- not too much -- of kids, and homework falls into that,” Pondiscio told ABC News. The benefits of assigning homework also depend on what you want it to rules essay, achieve, Pondiscio said.
Homework may not lead to a higher grade on a test within six months, he said, but it can encourage behaviors and best lines of college foster skills that yield long-term benefits such as practice in time-management. “Whenever I hear ‘homework doesn’t work,’ my first response is, ‘Well what do you want homework to ucla essay question, do?’” Pondiscio said. “We always want to press the best first lines essays, easy button in these discussions, and there isn’t one.” Kelly Elementary School Principal Glasheen has heard from thesis electronic health some critics of her school's homework ban who echo Pondiscio, telling her, 'You're letting kids off the hook,' she said. But she's also gotten support. The far-flung responses she's received suggests how widespread is the best lines essays, debate over homework's value. Conclusion Compare Contrast? “I have heard from principals from southern California, Dallas, Brazil, she said. Elementary School Bans Homework Amid Growing Debate. Best First Of College Essays? Las Vegas suspect set up cameras inside and outside hotel room. Mattis voices support for Iran deal ahead of deadline.
How the Las Vegas shooting unfolded. Top Democrat demands answers on whether Kushner used private email for diplomacy. Strikes in Catalonia as leaders push for independence from Spain. Twin sisters shot in Las Vegas recount how they survived. Musician leads group into new jersey city freezer for safety during Las Vegas shooting. New York police training hotel staff on recognizing gun cases after Vegas shooting. 4 detained in France after knife attack in Marseille. US expels 15 Cuban diplomats from embassy in Washington. Best Essays? ANALYSIS: Crises crash in on Donald Trump from multiple directions. Facebook turns over 3,000 Russia-linked ads to Congress. Essay Malaysia? Joe Biden, former Rep.
Gabby Giffords blame Congress for not acting on best first of college gun violence. Trump calls Las Vegas shooting an 'act of pure evil' Hillary Clinton slams NRA, gun silencer bill in wake of Las Vegas shooting. Las Vegas shooting spotlights pair of bills that would lift gun restrictions. Supreme Court to weigh political gerrymandering, other high-stakes cases. Trump says Tillerson is 'wasting his time' on talks with North Korea. Supreme Court to hear political gerrymandering case. New US ambassador to Russia meets Putin in Kremlin visit.
Witnesses testify VX killed brother of North Korean leader. Republicans say Trump denied deal with Dems on Dreamers. For many hotels, terror risks make tight security routine. Tropical bird likely blown off course by hurricane dies. Walmart, honing same-day delivery skills, buys NYC's Parcel. Essay Question? What we know about the first, Las Vegas shooter's girlfriend.
Investigators want to talk to Vegas gunman's girlfriend. Thesis Statement Electronic Health? 42 guns, loaded high-capacity magazines found in best lines, Vegas shooter's hotel room and home. Comparing Trump and Obama reactions to rules essay writing, mass shootings. Trump calls Las Vegas shooting suspect 'sick' and of college 'demented' These are the 10 deadliest mass shootings in thesis health, modern US history. Tom Petty a rock classicist from the beginning. UK's May fights for first essays future after election woes, Brexit rift. Exaples? Stories behind 7 of Tom Petty's most famous songs. 'Making a Murderer' subject Steven Avery denied new trial. 'Black-ish' takes on Columbus Day with musical 'Hamilton'-inspired episode. Comedian releases novel inspired by his Irish roots.
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Sometimes we have to ask ourselves: Why do we put them on a pedestal? Most people tend to do this to family members, celebrities or even people we don’t know that work for branches of best lines essays, our local safety department or the military. But, the one place where people tend to hold a majority of their role models is with athletes. It’s no. Form of the Good , Hope That We Can Be Together Soon , Michael Jordan 2428 Words | 8 Pages.
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Daniel Bivona, “On W. K. Clifford and ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876? The mathematician W. K. Best Lines Of College Essays! Clifford was the youngest and possibly most controversial member of the Metaphysical Society, a group originally formed by Alfred Lord Tennyson and some close friends. Lasting from 1869 to 1880, the ucla essay question, Society ultimately brought together a great variety of intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and first essays Church figures of the era for vigorous debates on metaphysical topics. A pioneering promoter and translator of the ucla essay, non-Euclidian geometer Riemann, Clifford anticipated Einstein’s discovery that gravity was not a mysterious force of bodies but an effect of curved space, but it was his withering criticism of metaphysical claims before the Metaphysical Society – in particular, his attack on the morality of best lines of college essays believing on conclusion, insufficient evidence, an argument which was delivered two years after he first joined the group and later published as the best first lines of college, essay “The Ethics of Belief” – that marked him as the most controversial proponent of the agnostic position in the late Victorian period. When he died at the young age of city university admissions 33 in 1879, Clifford left a legacy of important unpublished scientific work and a number of impressive published essays in which he offered both a very compelling critique of the ethics of best lines metaphysical commitments and a powerful argument, inspired by Darwin’s Descent of university admissions essay Man , in favor of the claim that ethics derive from evolutionary history rather than descending from an immaterial God. The Metaphysical Society was formed in first of college 1869 by a group led initially by ucla, the architect Sir James Knowles, the poet laureate Alfred Lord Tennyson, and the astronomer Charles Pritchard. Lines Essays! Knowles had a lively interest in essay national malaysia metaphysical exploration and he helped to encourage that taste in his friend Tennyson.
Tennyson by first lines, 1869 had also been nursing for some time a fear that the Victorian age had become an age of materialism, and consequently inattentive to important spiritual matters. Of Essays! Pritchard, who would soon become the Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, was convinced, in the aftermath of the controversy over Essays and Reviews (in 1860), of the need to reconcile scientific knowledge and the Bible and he likewise helped encourage the best essays, poet’s interest in metaphysical speculation (Metcalf 212). Although initially the group wanted to exclude opponents of rules essay Christianity from discussions, they soon became convinced that inviting opponents of Christianity into first, the Society would guarantee lively discussions of the evidences for Christian belief (Metcalf 214). The Society ultimately brought together a great variety of intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and Church figures of the new jersey university, era for vigorous debates. The distinguished roster of members included, besides the best first essays, three most important founding members, Dean Stanley and rules writing Archbishop Manning, the Broad Church theologian F. D. Maurice, intellectuals such as John Ruskin, Leslie Stephen, Mark Pattison, Walter Bagehot, and J. A. Froude, future and current prime ministers Arthur Balfour and William Ewart Gladstone, as well as scientists and philosophers such as T. H. Huxley, William Tyndall, Sir John Lubbock, and the young mathematician William Kingdon Clifford. The group met for nine monthly meetings per year from its founding in 1869 until its demise in 1880. At these meetings, papers were read and discussed by the membership and often reprinted in journals such as The Contemporary Review and The Nineteenth Century . The volume Papers Read at the Meetings of the first lines of college essays, Metaphysical Society contains a complete roster of the well-known participants ( Papers xiii-xiv). Figure 1: William Kingdon Clifford, 1901. By deriving ethics from evolution and attempting to shift the focus of question scientific interest from the best lines of college, “individual” to the “group,” Clifford eventually became an essay national service malaysia, effective polemical voice on the “godless” side of the acerbic debates over lines design and natural selection that characterized British intellectual life more broadly in the period.
Moreover, the ucla, work he did in his short lifetime (and the work published after his death by best lines of college essays, the defenders of his reputation such as Karl Pearson and his wife, the novelist Lucy Clifford) ensured a central role for his ideas in the increasingly heated debates about the nature of the “social” in what would eventually be called “Social Darwinism.” In fact, his categorical dismissal of “self-regarding virtues” (“there are no self-regarding virtues”) made him an ucla essay, effective critic of Utilitarianism as well—indeed, of all ethical systems which take the first lines, individual as a starting point (“Scientific Basis” 121). Although he was the youngest member of the Metaphysical Society and new jersey university was not invited to join the group until it had been in existence for five years, he seems to have quickly become one of the best lines of college, most controversial, if not influential, members of that distinguished, and varied, group. His importance clearly stemmed in part, not only from his challenging philosophical claims about the origins of human ethical reasoning, but also from the clarity with which he presented these ideas in his lectures and essays. Indeed, “The Ethics of Belief,” which was presented to the Society in 1876 and published in a different form in the Contemporary Review in 1877, stirred up a significant controversy, drawing sharp criticism from Matthew Arnold among others and ultimately helping to of essays spawn William James’s thoughtfully critical response twenty years later in “Will to Believe.” Clifford’s very accessible prose style contributed mightily to best first lines of college essays stoking the controversy over “The Ethics of Belief,” for in that essay Clifford not only avoided the obscure jargon that is sometimes a distinguishing feature of metaphysical debates, but illustrated his claims with familiar examples that his audience found variously compelling or infuriating. Writing Conclusion Compare Contrast! If not the most complex argument, “The Ethics of first lines of college Belief” is, nonetheless, the university admissions essay, most important and provocative polemical work produced by any of the group of “Metaphysicals” that Bernard Lightman calls “the agnostics” (Huxley, Tyndall, Stephen, and Clifford [Lightman 2]). Indeed, one might say that Clifford takes the first lines essays, fear that many believers harbored—the fear that to challenge Christian metaphysics is to undermine Christian ethics—and turns it against the prejudices of the devout by statement, accusing them of immorality precisely for promoting belief in metaphysical entities for which there is no compelling evidence. “The Ethics of Belief” begins with the claim that it is immoral to believe anything on first lines of college essays, insufficient evidence. One example Clifford gives involves a shipowner who decides to city university allow a vessel to leave port despite his knowing that the evidence points to its being unseaworthy. Whether he believes the ship to be seaworthy (and believes this sincerely) or whether the ship actually does sail successfully to its next port of call (and thus avoids disastrous consequences), is irrelevant.
The shipowner is still acting in an “immoral” way in allowing the ship to best first set sail whether it reaches its next port or not, because he is acting against what the preponderance of the evidence tells him about the ship’s condition (“Ethics” 70). Ethically, it matters not whether the belief in its seaworthiness is sincerely held or even factually true. What matters is that the shipowner in this case ignores what the evidence points to, his belief is held on insufficient evidence, and thus, he acts in an immoral way. Moreover, in Clifford’s view, “no man’s belief is…a private matter which concerns himself alone” (“Ethics” 73). All beliefs have serious ethical consequences for others. To behave in a credulous way is not simply to make an error of reasoning relevant only to one’s own individual state of mind; rather, to fall into credulity is to perform an immoral act with serious consequences for thesis electronic health, other people. As Clifford says, The danger to society is not merely that it should believe wrong things, though that is great enough; but that it should become credulous, and lose the habit of essays testing things and ucla essay question inquiring into lines essays, them; for then it must sink back into savagery. (“Ethics” 76) If one takes a different example, for instance, a seemingly harmless belief in spirit mediums, one can see why Clifford refuses to concede that even such ostensibly harmless beliefs are actually harmless to society. Statement Electronic Records! Because these beliefs can only be sustained by ingrained habits of refusing the best essays, conclusions entailed by evidence, to new jersey city university believe in spirit mediums is to foster credulity more generally and thus to encourage habits of refusing to inquire into the evidence for belief.
It is no surprise, then, to learn that Clifford was at odds with such Metaphysicals as Henry Sidgwick and Arthur Balfour on this issue, or to learn that he once successfully exposed the “famous Williams” as a fraud at one of his seances (Madigan 34). Clifford’s claims in “The Ethics of Belief” excited vituperative criticism from a variety of Metaphysicals and others. The first response to appear in print came from Henry Wace in The Contemporary Review in June 1877. Another of Clifford’s critics, William George Ward, the Roman Catholic editor of the Dublin Review , followed with perhaps the harshest polemical attack on Clifford in an article entitled “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude,” which appeared in Nineteenth Century in 1878. Best Of College Essays! A deft practitioner of hyperbolic argument himself, Ward zeroed in on the hyperbolic element of Clifford’s argument: his claim that one has an ethical obligation to examine the evidence for all beliefs. The counter example Ward gives—of a man in a village who bases his conviction of the superiority of his village’s cricket eleven to essay question the cricket eleven of a neighboring village on no evidence whatsoever–is an amusing reductio ad absurdum of Clifford’s claim about the immorality involved in believing anything on insufficient evidence (Madigan 87-8).
Clifford’s claims could be caricatured in such a way by anyone who notices that, in fact, all of us do operate on many beliefs day-to-day that we have neither the patience nor the best lines of college, time to examine the evidence for. However, Ward’s attack on Clifford ends with Ward elaborating a sophistical argument in defense of the Catholic Church’s refusal to allow its faithful to read the ucla question, works of first of college essays skeptical authors like Clifford (Qtd in Madigan 89). This is precisely the attitude to belief that Clifford is criticizing in his essay and his most vituperative critic among the Metaphysicals cannot avoid exposing, in his own essay attacking Clifford’s position, exactly the anti-rational stance Clifford so deftly skewers in his own. The Metaphysical Society was organized not simply to provide a forum for debating metaphysical and epistemological claims. All its members—whether agnostic or not—appear to have shared the new jersey, fear that serious ethical issues were at best first lines stake in these metaphysical debates. In short, the Society implicitly sought to address what might be called Dostoyevsky’s question: if God is dead, is everything permitted? Clifford, thus, was, if anything, as interested in addressing the question of the origins of morality as in raising doubts about the existence and wisdom of God, and part of what made “The Ethics of Belief” so controversial was Clifford’s aiming a direct attack in it on the morality of metaphysical commitments.
To believe in angels is not simply wrong-headed to Clifford; it is morally wrong. Clifford’s earlier essay “On the Scientific Basis of rules writing Morals” is perhaps his most complex and novel treatment of the evolutionary foundation for morality (it was first published in The Contemporary Review in 1875). Not quite as provokingly polemical, perhaps, as the later “Ethics of Belief,” this essay is, nonetheless, the most complete statement of Clifford’s views on what he called “the tribal self”—an ethical agency produced by evolution but one that is not identifiable with any organized religion. He begins by arguing that all humans have been blessed by evolution with a “moral sense,” which he argues inspires feelings of “pleasure or unpleasure” in the doing of actions and which is first lines of college essays “felt by the human mind in compare contrast contemplating certain courses of conduct” (287). Of College! This does not at ucla essay question all suggest to Clifford, however, that moral judgments are as individual as humans are.
The “maxims of absolute or universal right” are not necessarily “universal” but they are felt to be independent of the individual: their power to compel human behavior comes partly from the fact that they embody the moral authority of the group rather than just the individual (288). The source of moral agency is best of college essays ultimately this “tribal self,” a component of the human mind that shapes human moral behavior in ways that have worked to the benefit of the essay, tribe over the course of first evolutionary time. Our “savage” ancestors followed the dictates of this agency, and this accounts for why “the savage is not only hurt when anybody treads on his foot but when anybody treads on his tribe” (291). Emphasizing Darwin’s insight (in The Descent of Man ) that the ability of humans to new jersey city university admissions cooperate through language means that, in human evolutionary history, natural selection might well have operated as much to lines the benefit of the thesis electronic records, social group as to the benefit of the individual, Clifford argues, “natural selection will in the long run preserve those tribes which have approved the right things; namely those things which at that time gave the tribe an advantage in the struggle for existence” (292-3). Hence, what we call “conscience” is no more than “self-judgment in best lines of college essays the name of the tribe” (293). To trace the foundations of ethical judgment, we need not travel to new jersey city essay Sinai. We need only examine the evolutionary function of morality: “Those tribes have on the whole survived in which conscience approved such actions as tended to the improvement of men’s characters as citizens and lines of college therefore to the survival of the tribe” (297).
The evolutionary model of writing conclusion compare contrast morality that Clifford develops here necessarily commits him to something he delighted in—redefining religious language for polemical purposes, in best first lines of college this case, to ground ethics in the material foundation of evolutionary history, to essay writing take it out of the possessive hands of the first of college essays, religious who insist on grounding morality in the orders of a deity. Thus, “piety” no longer is to be seen as a behavioral response to the demands of one’s immaterial God, its proper form shaped by the dictates of religious authority, but rather as a behavioral response to what is demanded by “the tribe,” a response conditioned by national service malaysia, evolutionary advantage: It is necessary to the tribe that the pious character should be encouraged and preserved, the impious character discouraged and removed….[T]he actions whose open approval is liked by the tribal self are called right actions, and those whose open disapproval is disliked are called wrong actions. (294) Clifford was ahead of his time in helping to define the emerging late Victorian evolutionary concept of first of college “social efficiency” although he deploys the concept in a more sophisticated way than would later be done by of essays, Benjamin Kidd in his Social Evolution of 1894, a work which popularized the term and which made a name for its heretofore unknown author partly because in it he assigned to organized religion the evolutionary function of promoting social cohesion. Since the “tribal self” is responsible for first, promoting “pious” behavior, and since Clifford’s notion of “pious” behavior redefines virtue as what serves the conclusion, goal of evolutionary efficiency for the group, we can then dispense with the unnecessary hypothesis of God, not to mention the need for assigning a grandiose social role to organized forms of religion. Moreover, there can be no “self-regarding virtues,” according to Clifford, no ethical requirements favoring the practice of virtues such as prudence and temperance which have no clear bearing on the welfare of others. All virtues can only “be rightly encouraged in so far as they are shown to conduce to the efficiency of a citizen; that is, in so far as they cease to be self-regarding” (298). Of College Essays! Moreover, virtue cannot be grounded in the practice of rules writing altruism, which Darwin ruled out as an impossible result of the operation of natural selection. Cooperation, yes, because cooperative behavior offers evolutionary payoffs for species that cooperate with one another.
Altruism, no, because, as Clifford says, “Piety is not Altruism. It is not the doing good to others as others, but the service of the community by a member of it, who loses in that service the consciousness that he is anything different from the community” (299). In this respect, Clifford anticipates the best of college, more complex view of the social nature of human identity that was outlined in 1895 by J. A. Hobson in new jersey city university admissions his trenchant critique of Kidd’s Social Evolution (Hobson 302-3). In another of his essays, “The Ethics of Religion,” Clifford offers a direct challenge to the claim that organized religion serves social efficiency (it first appeared in print in best essays the Fortnightly Review , July 1877). Clifford’s case against religion is based partly in a critique of metaphysics and partly in rules essay a view that religions persistently confound “purely ceremonial” proscriptions with necessary moral laws (“Religion” 365). Insofar as they produce and reproduce this confusion, they work against social efficiency. Thus, he cites two famous comments attributed by the New Testament to first lines of college essays Jesus: “He that believeth not shall be damned” ( King James Bible : Mark 16:16) and new jersey university admissions “Blessed are they that have not seen and yet have believed” ( King James Bible : John 20:29). Clifford’s response to these claims is, “For a man who clearly felt and recognised the duty of intellectual honesty, of carefully testing every belief before he received it, and especially before he recommended it to others, it would be impossible to ascribe the profoundly immoral teaching of these texts to a true prophet or worthy leader of humanity” (“Religion” 102). Best Lines Essays! If believing on insufficient evidence is “immoral,” it necessarily follows that the founder of Christianity, at conclusion contrast essay least in this aspect of his teaching, is a profoundly immoral person. Clifford’s influence among the devout would ultimately be limited by of college, this tendency to defiant polemics, and of essays there is little evidence in first lines essays any case that the more conventionally religious members of the Metaphysical Society had the slightest interest in being persuaded to share his views. While his ideas stirred up passionate support among the “agnostic” group in the Metaphysical Society, even the agnostics hesitated, after his death, to promote his ideas too publicly out of the fear that they would endanger their own, hard won, professional respectability.
The publication of Clifford’s “Ethics of Belief” in exaples of essays the Contemporary Review in 1877 not only seems to first lines have led to the sacking of service malaysia its editor, James Knowles, by the new owners of the periodical, but it ensured that Clifford himself “became an object of persistent vilification in the new more doctrinally conservative Contemporary that began to appear subsequently” (Dawson 168). Even before he had been asked to join the Metaphysical Society, Clifford’s views on sexuality and divorce and his celebration of Swinburne and Whitman as the exponents of “cosmic emotion” in a May 1873 Sunday Lecture Series address had raised eyebrows among his “agnostic” friends (Dawson 169; “Cosmic Emotion” 411-29). According to Dawson, after Clifford’s death in 1879, T. H. Huxley set out deliberately to do what he could to protect Clifford’s reputation from being sullied by association with “political radicalism, extremist atheism, and Swinburne’s controversial aesthetic poetry”–all of which were nonetheless important to Clifford in his lifetime (Dawson 165). Clifford’s ideas about divorce were quite radical for best first lines essays, their time, and his critique of metaphysics positioned him as the most strident of the “agnostics.” Moreover, his celebration of Proudhon and Swinburne tied him closely both to utopian socialism and aestheticist poetry in the minds of writing contrast essay his critics (165). Clifford’s close friends and colleagues, Frederick Pollock and Leslie Stephen, who posthumously edited and published his Lectures and Essays , were apparently so worried about protecting his reputation after his death in 1879 that they bowdlerized a number of the essays in first of college order to leave a better “impression” with readers (173). New Jersey City University Admissions! While the young Karl Pearson, who edited Clifford’s posthumously published The Common Sense of the best lines essays, Exact Sciences (1885), happily used material from Clifford’s provocative essay “Mistress or Wife” in his essay “Socialism and Sex,” Clifford’s wife Lucy “subtly refashioned aspects of Clifford’s actual personality that might now play into the hands of his numerous adversaries” [after his death] (187). For this reason, George Levine refers to Clifford as “the Oscar Wilde of the naturalists” (255). However controversial Clifford’s views on sexuality, aesthetic poetry, and divorce ultimately made him, his polemical essays on ethics for the Metaphysical Society ought to be considered a major contribution to the study of the evolutionary origins of ethics. Moreover, he was certainly more responsible than any of the “Metaphysicals” for placing ethics squarely in the domain of ucla essay question science. His writings and lectures on this topic are characterized by directness, a carefully logical form of argumentation, and a resort to Scriptural examples that infuriated his opponents and best lines of college essays left his supporters cheering him. The tone of his essays, however, is perhaps not quite as clear as one would think.
Clifford’s characterization of Jesus cited above provides a prime example. Does he truly believe that the Jesus who commends blind faith is an immoral person or is he deliberately employing a hyperbolic rhetorical strategy here designed to produce maximum shock? While there is no particular reason to doubt the sincerity of exaples of essays his claims, the question of tone–and thus, sincerity–has to be raised simply because it could not have escaped his attention that he was firing a Big Bertha at best first lines the defenders of Christianity. Compare Essay! Bernard Lightman has argued that Victorian agnosticism was anything but atheistical. That is, the agnostic group shared with many traditional theists in the Victorian Age the belief that metaphysical debates, in the final analysis, boil down to discussions about the limitations faced by the human mind in trying to comprehend an ultimately unknowable God. Lines Of College Essays! Thus, the agnostics were not attempting to destroy religion. Instead, they sought to purify it (Lightman 125). Moreover, Lightman argues that Clifford retained “a high regard for the original spirit of Christianity” despite being the most “savage” of the agnostics in his attacks on it (122). If Lightman’s claim is accurate, Clifford perhaps must be seen less as a consistent intellectual radical and statement health more as a figure of multiple contradictions: a scientific materialist imbued with “cosmic emotion”; an empiricist unable to forsake things in themselves; the most “savage” critic of organized Christianity and best essays Christian metaphysics in the period who nevertheless retains a great fondness for essay malaysia, the moral example of Jesus Christ; an ethicist who derives ethics from evolution but who cannot finally surrender higher–if not high-minded—aspirations for best first essays, human society. Daniel Bivona, currently associate professor of English at Arizona State University, is author or co-author of three books: Desire and Contradiction (Manchester UP, 1990), British Imperial Literature, 1870 to 1940 (Cambridge UP, 1998), and (with Roger B. Henkle) The Imagination of essay national malaysia Class (Ohio State UP, 2006).
He is currently at work on two collections and best first of college essays a monograph tentatively entitled The Natural and Social History of Pluck: Character and essay question Competition in the Victorian Age . His essays have appeared in best first lines of college a variety of journals including Nineteenth Century Literature, Novel, Nineteenth Century Contexts, and Nineteenth Century Studies . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Bivona, Daniel. “On W. K. Thesis Statement Electronic! Clifford and ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and best first lines of college Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH]. Berman, David. A History of Atheism in Britain: From Hobbes to essay Russell . London, New York and first Sydney: Croom Helm, 1988.
Print. Clifford, William Kingdon. The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences . Ed. Karl Pearson. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner and thesis statement electronic records Co., 1907 . Web. 16 October 2012. —. “Cosmic Emotion.” The Nineteenth Century 2 (1877): 411-29. Print.
—. “The Ethics of best first essays Belief.” “The Ethics of compare essay Belief” and Other Essays . Ed. Timothy J. Madigan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. First Lines Essays! 70-96. Print. —. “The Ethics of Religion.” “The Ethics of Belief” and Other Essays . Ed. Ucla Question! Timothy J. Madigan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. 97-121. Print.
—. “On the Scientific Basis of Morals.” Lectures and Essays by first lines, the Late William Kingdon Clifford . Eds. Frederick Pollock and Leslie Stephen. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan and writing conclusion essay Co., 1886. 287-99.
Web. 1 March 2012. Darwin, Charles. Best First Essays! The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex . London: John Murray, 1875. Print. Dawson, Gowan. Darwin, Literature, and rules essay writing Victorian Respectability . Best First Essays! Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2007. Print. Hobson, J. Rules Essay! A. Best First! “Mr. Kidd’s Social Evolution .” American Journal of thesis electronic Sociology 1.3 (Nov.
1895): 299-312. First Of College Essays! JSTOR. 14 March 2012. James, William. The Will to essay question Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy . New York, London, Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras: Longmans Green and Co., 1896. Web. 30 June 2012. The Holy Bible . Authorized King James Version.
New York and first of college essays Scarborough, Ontario: Meridian Books, n.d. Print. Kidd, Benjamin. Social Evolution . New York: Macmillan, 1894. Question! Print. Levine, George. “Scientific Discourse as an Alternative to Faith.” Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays on best of college, Continuity and exaples Change in Nineteenth Century Religious Belief . Eds. Richard J. Helmstadter and Bernard Lightman. London: Macmillan, 1990. 225-61. Print. Lightman, Bernard.
The Origins of Agnosticism . Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987. Print. Madigan, Timothy J. W. K. Clifford and “The Ethics of of college Belief.” Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. Print. Metcalf, Priscilla. James Knowles: Victorian Editor and Architect . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980. Papers Read at the Meetings of the Metaphysical Society (1869 to 1880) . London: Metaphysical Society, n.d. Web. 1 June 2012. Wace, Henry. Exaples Of Essays! “‘The Ethics of Belief’: A Reply to Professor Clifford.” Contemporary Review 30 (June 1877): 42-54. Print.
Ward, William George. Best Lines Essays! “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude.” The Twentieth Century.