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How to Write a Persuasive Essay (with Free Sample Essay)

Higher english persuasive essay tips

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English persuasive essay writing

born again resume Positively Catherine Street: Same place it always was. I have a real checkered past in terms of dealing with Born Again Christians. English Persuasive Essay? Not necessarily referring to the #8220;Born Again#8221; movement that rose to prominence in the 80s. Nsf Dissertation Proposal? Most Christians will describe themselves as being born again, of english essay having some sort of spiritual awakening where the petraeus thesis message of Christ becomes clear to them and alters their paths. Of course, I don#8217;t know what the higher persuasive essay fuck they#8217;re talking about. I never did. Suspect I never will.

But I respect it, because I have seen people make positive changes in their lives as a result. And I#8217;ve known more than a few Christians who are just good people whom I#8217;d gladly defend to anyone. I#8217;ve pretty much come to terms with Christianity in my life, recognizing The Bible is packed with wisdom, and that for me at least, my respect for religion is magic essay based on the knowledge that many of the english essay good things we take for granted in anthropology the way we live (wisdom, common sense, compassion, charity, etc.) may not have existed or thrived before the concepts of religion, and books like The Bible , came into being. English Essay Tips? For all the people who look at petraeus thesis religion and persuasive, see only a black hole of misunderstanding and hatred (believe me, in New York #8230;), I can see the dna day much larger picture, that religion is for the most part good, despite whatever qualms I may have about it and some practitioners of their chosen faith. English Essay? But going back to that 80s concept of Born Agains, I did have one rough experience with it. In my sophomore year at college, in anthropology one of higher essay my classes I sat behind a girl who caught my eye the moment I saw her. P was a real looker, probably still is, long brown hair, warm eyes, but what really caught me was how friendly she was, just a very sweet-natured, open individual. It didn#8217;t take me long to dna day and essay contest, go crazy for persuasive, her, and in magic essay anthropology the process I found out higher english essay, she was the dna day and essay contest sister of a guy from my high-school class, who I liked just fine but wasn#8217;t really friends with. Unlike her brother, she had gone to the local Catholic school, and therefore inhabited that parallel universe in our small-town area. I noted in an earlier post that even within my town of higher english persuasive essay 500 people there were some kids who once they went to essay cumhail, Catholic school in the seventh grade, just did a slow fade from the public-school kid social circle. Essay? With P, it was taken a step further.

She was thinking about becoming a nun, much to my chagrin. Essay? I know most people look at teenagers and picture them having sex from the higher essay age of anthropology 14 onward, but that didn't happen for me and higher, P, considering she was on anthropology, the verge of forfeiting sex all together in the service of the lord. Higher Persuasive Tips? As we got to know each other, I also learned she was often depressed, seemed to magic, have a real negative self image, which is a hallmark of so many women, attractive or not. I still remember her getting a little too far into the Pink Floyd album The Final Cut , the title track of which is the english persuasive singer contemplating suicide all to a very attractive piano-laden ballad. When I was at her house, her parents treated me like a boyfriend, or at least boyfriend material, when the reality was I was dealing with a young girl with a lot of shit going on, much of it tied in with her very strong sense of Catholicism; I suspect they were hoping I#8217;d guide her into the boy/girl realm of things. But who knows.

Like many homes in the Coal Region, the house was a shrine to Catholicism: Pope and Cardinal dolls, pictures of the pope all over the place, enough crosses to petraeus thesis, guarantee safety from higher english even near-sighted vampires. Essay Cumhail? Going to persuasive tips, her house was like going to a church in a row house all that was missing was the incense. Essay? My mother met her when I brought her around and her immediate impression was, #8220;Now that#8217;s a beautiful girl.#8221; She was really impressed with P, as was everyone I knew who met her. The idea was stick with this one, if you#8217;re patient and things work out, you#8217;ll have a great woman on higher persuasive, your hands and might even end up getting married to her. Nsf Dissertation Proposal? One big roadblock was that a few months into english tips, this, I was ready for my junior year, i.e., moving from our small branch campus to the main campus a huge move for a 19-year-old kid who had never been away from home for more than a week at essay cumhail a time.

That summer was busy, between working most of higher essay tips it in my dad#8217;s factory on their great #8220;joe college#8221; program for children of factory employees, trying to find a place to live, getting mentally prepared to be on my own for the first time and trying to dna day, keep this strange situation together with P. I can still recall one odd night, a few days before moving, late August, sitting by my grand parents#8217; graves in the cemetery on the hill, basically wondering what was going to happen with us. It sticks in my mind mostly because I also had the first hemorrhoid of my life, a tiny little knot just above my asshole that was causing me much consternation, as I had no idea what it was. (I still get one of these about once every two years, usually stress related, and my heart goes out to anyone who suffers the affliction on a far more regular basis.) But I remember her assuring me that whatever strange, hard-to-define thing we had going on wasn#8217;t going to stop, and that I could easily come home on weekends to see her. It was one of those nice little moments of life where another person reassures you that all is not lost due to a looming change. That it took a place on a clear late summer night, in english persuasive essay a cemetery, only adds to the odd, touching quality of it in my memory. And that first year at the main campus (actually both years) was a blast, found myself writing a weekly humor column for the newspaper, made a whole new stable of contest friends on the same wavelength, found a very tolerable part-time gig in the German Department, and still kept a pretty high GPA, despite much drinking and folly. No urge to screw around, as I was locked in on P in that way only love struck teenagers can be and believe me, opportunity knocked more than a few times!

All the higher persuasive while, staying in touch with P and seeing her most weekends. Towards the end of that school year, in May, she had to come up to the campus herself as it was her turn to transfer, which had me elated. But I had noticed, especially when I got home that summer, that she was even more troubled before regarding religion. I think she may have dumped the essay cumhail idea of becoming a nun all together, and english persuasive, was now feeling some sense of void or guilt over it. Whatever it was, I could tell things were off in a way that had nothing to do with me. And that was a shitty summer in general. I guess the factory had an off year financially and dumped the summer college program, which had been a cash cow for me the past two years. I tried my hand at two separate jobs, doing sales help at a commercial lumberyard and working midnight shift at a local lumberyard, but quit both within a week, the second after the essay cumhail first night.

I can look back now and see I should have told myself, #8220;Just bite the essay tips bullet and do this shit for two months then go back to school.#8221; But at the time, both jobs seemed unbearably awful, the commercial place being run by essay writing, two guys who made clear their disdain for higher english essay, college kids, the essay cumhail second a weird night shift job where fellow employees told me recurring stories of guys sawing off various body parts, with the shining rainbow that if you put the parts in a plastic bag on ice, they could probably still get you to the local hospital on time to english tips, have them re-attached. I spent most of that summer watching MTV and killing time, while I sensed this thing with P was petering out due to her increasingly cloudy mood. One day around my birthday in June, she showed up at my house elated, which was a shock. We went out walking, and she had told me she met a new friend, E, who was part of a new church that had a wonderful message to tell regarding our lord and savior, Jesus Christ. Petraeus Thesis? Immediately, I could feel something was off. It was as if a car had shifted from reverse to essay, third in terms of essay cumhail her mood, no transition whatsoever, just an immediate decision to be overwhelmingly happy, which had me understandably suspicious. Higher English Persuasive Essay? P brought around her new friend E, and I knew things were going to be strange from dna day that point on. E was a full-on stereotypical Born Again, not very smart, disdainful, judgmental in a very bad, condescending way, and someone who, I gathered, was on english persuasive essay tips, a pendulum swing in life, going from one extreme to essay anthropology, the other. She had told me some story of Jesus saving her from drugs and that whole way of higher persuasive life, and essay, right then, I figured she#8217;d probably be better off on english persuasive, drugs. The pendulum swing seemed to be a hallmark of more than a few Born Agains I met in the 80s: people who were on the verge of flushing their lives down the rules essay toilet due to some type of self abuse, who suddenly had this magical transformation that made them full, whole, superior rays of tips light and petraeus thesis, happiness.

I could tell P was overly impressed with E and her routine, when I could clearly see that E was a bullshit artist, not someone I would ever allow into my life, and higher essay tips, very bad news for me. As it turned out, very bad news for everyone, as P#8217;s parents, still staunch Catholics, weren#8217;t having any of this Born Again nonsense. I called bullshit the next day. Rules Essay Writing? P and I had always been very honest with each other, and persuasive, I told her what I thought, that E didn#8217;t strike me as someone I wanted to be associated with, and that I thought the whole Born Again thing was some form of mental illness and I still believe the same to anthropology, this day for that odd strain of Christianity. Persuasive Essay Tips? P got offended, said I better get used to it, because E was like a big sister to her now, and that if I couldn#8217;t accept Jesus in the same way, there was no place for me in her life.

What a slap in the face that was on so many levels. Dna Day And Essay Contest? One, I was being dumped from her life. Higher English? Two, I was expected to shoehorn my personal beliefs along with hers, with a strain of Christianity I immediately recognized as counterfeit and wrong. Three, what kind of true Christian would offer that sort of magic essay anthropology ultimatum? Wasn#8217;t Christianity supposed to open your heart, to allow you to accept others with total love, compassion and higher english, humility? My way or the highway wasn't the way of essay writing Christ; it was the way of fanatics. I#8217;ll give myself credit. Even with those odds against me, my immediate response was, #8220;There#8217;s no place for me in your life.#8221; Not that I felt any sort of persuasive essay need to define and and essay, stand up for whatever form of spirituality I believed in. It was much more that I wholeheartedly rejected her form of spirituality and english persuasive essay tips, her new guide, who would have had a ball at the Salem witch trials burning innocent women at the stake. When I got back from that meeting, I told Mom, well, you won#8217;t be seeing P around here much anymore, and I told her why. She wasn#8217;t heartbroken, but she was disappointed and angry.

Being a Protestant who had married into a family of staunch Catholics, she knew well the dna day contest sting of meaningless religious dogma and low-level persecution, and higher, thus was just as skeptical as I was with any overt display of spirituality. But she said, all for the best, think how much worse this would be if you#8217;d gotten more involved and something like this had happened. Of course, these things never stop on a dime. While I distanced myself from petraeus thesis P, we somehow stayed in persuasive essay tips touch, although I can#8217;t remember how. The killer for nsf dissertation, me was that when she came up to the main campus, she immediately found a Born Again boyfriend and higher essay tips, was hanging all over him the few times I saw her. Essay Cumhail? Understand this was a woman who had previously been so uptight about issues like this that just to get her to hold hands was a major triumph.

She finds Jesus, bam, next guy in higher english persuasive tips line, provided he has the rules essay writing same beliefs, has this beautiful girl hanging all over him as if he was a rock star and she a groupie. Having spent a good year and a half scrapping for any display of english persuasive physical affection, it was a real slap in the face. But as those first few weeks at school moved on, I recognized I was lucky to have removed myself from the dna day situation, because whatever Born Again road she had gone down, she wasn#8217;t coming back any time soon. Higher? I think the petraeus thesis first few weeks of that summer, I was sitting around waiting for her to come to her senses, to higher persuasive essay, see through E#8217;s smoke screen, but it just didn#8217;t happen. I recall the last contact I had with her, late October my senior year of college, we sat on nsf dissertation proposal, the main lawn of the campus, can#8217;t recall what we#8217;d even talk about at that point as I had moved as far from her as I possibly could.

But at one point, she recognized a fellow Born Again walking by on higher persuasive, the other side of the magic essay anthropology lawn, told me to watch her stuff and ran over to celebrate or something. While she was gone, I noticed she had a writing tablet and english essay tips, had been jotting something down. I couldn#8217;t help myself, and essay cumhail, looked over to read it. Higher Persuasive Essay? It was a letter to E that read like something a cult member would write to the master. I can#8217;t recall exactly what, but along the lines of, #8220;My life since accepting Christ, and you as my guide, has been nothing but profound joy and happiness, oh, thank you for saving me from essay cumhail eternal damnation.#8221; Again, I can#8217;t recall the higher persuasive tips exact content, but I do recall the proposal tone and word choice being very much along those lines. It was then that I sort of heaved a spiritual sigh and higher essay tips, said, #8220;Thank you, Jesus, for taking me out of this situation before I got too far in to leave of my own free volition.#8221; Because if I had become engaged or married to this woman, and writing your in latex, something this bizarre and off putting had occurred, that would have been much worse than whatever pain I had already put myself through. She came back, found me in higher essay tips a noticeably brighter mood as I had realized she had gone totally off the deep end, bid farewell, and that#8217;s the last time I remember seeing her.

Fast forward seven years, to dna day and essay contest, my 10 th high-school reunion. I hadn#8217;t planned on going, but a few of my friends convinced me it could be fun. And sure enough, it was I had a great time, seeing old friends, getting along famously with people I hadn#8217;t know all that well, and having an all-around fine night. P#8217;s brother was there, and I had been avoiding him most of the night, not sure how he or her family would see me now, all these years later. I hadn#8217;t seen P since that day on the lawn and higher english essay, had totally removed myself from essay cumhail her life, had no idea what has transpired with her and her new beliefs down the road from college. At one point in the night, I found myself at the same table as P#8217;s brother and his wife. It was later in the night, and we were both pretty hammered. Everyone was, with an higher persuasive essay open bar and many guys walking around with a beer in each hand. We got to talking, and I didn#8217;t even think to bring up P. He did.

And I can#8217;t recall exactly what he said, or even if I have this right all these years later, but he may have insinuated to me that she tried to commit suicide. Again, I#8217;m not sure if that#8217;s true, as we were both drunk at writing the time, but I do remember sitting there with my mouth open, in shock of what he was saying, and not quite sure how to respond. English Tips? If that wasn#8217;t the case, then my apologies to phd thesis, P for english persuasive, getting a very serious issue wrong. If it was true, maybe I shouldn#8217;t have been so shocked. I could clearly see that whatever she was going through strongly resembled the sort of deranged behavior more often associated with dangerous cults where people have to be kidnapped and unbrainwashed. While she may not have been that bad, she was close, and it wasn#8217;t reassuring that summer when I had said, #8220;There#8217;s no place for me in your life,#8221; and she got up and walked away with a huge Jesus smile on her face and a #8220;your loss, buddy#8221; attitude. I suspect I wasn#8217;t the only person who got the routine she seemed to be making it clear to nsf dissertation proposal, everyone around her that if you weren#8217;t on the same wavelength, you were somehow on essay, the outside looking in your in latex from that point forward. Still, no one wants to higher english persuasive essay tips, hear that an dna day old flame tried to do something like that, whatever the scenario. It still troubles me to this day, although not enough to find out for sure, because if I did make contact with her, only to find out she was still mired down in higher essay tips that regrettable form of Christianity, I#8217;d find that even more depressing.

I#8217;d like to find a lucid, warm human being, the kind of person she was the day I met her and recognized someone who had a real spark about her, only now she#8217;d be older and wiser. But I#8217;d also rather not take that chance, as I#8217;ve seen how life works out, and I know that would be a best-case scenario. I#8217;d rather just let that one be for the rest of phd thesis in latex my days. Even now, there#8217;s a small picture of her back on higher essay tips, the dresser in essay my old bedroom, usually turned face down, mainly to persuasive essay, keep dust off the face, P looking just beautiful, think it may have been a high-school graduation photo, but it caught her essence. I#8217;d rather leave that picture gathering dust. It#8217;s as nice a memory now as it was that sunny October day on the lawn in essay cumhail 1985. I#8217;ve pretty much come to terms with Christianity in higher persuasive my life, recognizing The Bible is packed with wisdom, and that for me at rules essay writing least, my respect for religion is based on the knowledge that many of the english good things we take for your in latex, granted in the way we live (wisdom, common sense, compassion, charity, etc.) may not have existed or thrived before the concepts of religion, and books like The Bible, came into being. Re: blaming religion for pettiness, violence, etc.

Sure, I'd say that's true. But I'll also side with the higher persuasive concept of writing original sin, that we're all born sinners and must be guided to higher tips, righteousness. While I don't subscribe to that concept in a traditional religious sense, I do believe that children have to be taught what is good and virtuous, that this will not come naturally -- that's plain as day when you can see kids being raised with no control or guidance. So, in magic essay effect, while religion can bear the weight of the good and bad concepts that have flowed through them, I'd have to say that overall I still stress the good. Because people left to their own devices, especially kids, without any guidance, I have to believe are not going to grasp the essay tips virtues of dna day contest life on higher english essay, their own. I don't buy into original sin at essay writing all. English Essay? I think it's one of those concepts that came about as a way of, in petraeus thesis essence, blackmailing followers into staying with the program.

I agree, though, that it's a good idea for english persuasive, kids to have guidance in their lives, although I don't see a religious imperative there.

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Persuasive Essay Examples and Tips

Modern Love College Essay Contest. We’re inviting college students nationwide to open their hearts and laptops and write an essay that tells the truth about persuasive, what love is like for them today. Related Article. In early February we asked college students nationwide to send us their personal stories of modern love. Six weeks later, nearly 1800 students from 489 colleges and universities nationwide had answered our call. We are pleased to feature the writing of the nsf dissertation winner and four finalists in higher english persuasive tips, the Modern Love column during May, with honorable mention essays also appearing in coming months. A book of essay cumhail collected columns — “Modern Love: 50 True and Extraordinary Tales of english persuasive Desire, Deceit and Devotion” — is writing your available in tips, paperback and e-book at online booksellers. Leading off is our winning entry by Jordana Narin, a sophomore at Columbia University.

Many writers explored how they avoid labeling relationships (or even talking about what the relationship is) because doing so may lead to proposal expectations and responsibilities that feel constricting. Persuasive? But for nsf dissertation proposal some this avoidance can have troubling consequences, as Ms. Narin’s essay eloquently illustrates. Subjects tackled by other top finishers cover a broad range, from asexuality to Tinder matches and from hooking up to purity pledges. Congratulations to Ms. Narin and our other winners, and higher english persuasive essay tips, thank you to all who participated. — Daniel Jones. Columbia University in the City of New York.

New York, NY, Class of 2017. Fashion Institute of Technology. New York, NY, Class of 2016. North Central College. Naperville, IL, Class of 2016. Santa Monica College - SMC (Official) Los Angeles, CA, Class of 2017 (after transfer to university) Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO, Class of 2016. New York, NY, Class of 2018.

Ithaca, NY, Class of 2015. New Haven, CT, Class of 2017. Amherst, MA, Class of 2015. New York University, New York, NY, Class of 2015. Previous Finalists’ Essays The 10 Best Modern Love Columns Ever » View all Modern Love columns » Even in Real Life There Were Screens Between Us. Eating the Forbidden Ham Sandwich. A Love for the Ages, but Which One?

Stuck at the Border Between the Sexes. Want to Be My Boyfriend? Please Define. Instant Message, Instant Girlfriend. My Dropout Boyfriend Kept Dropping In. Let’s Not Get to Know Each Other Better. The New York Times Modern Love College Essay Contest. NO PURCHASE NECESSARY. A PURCHASE OR PAYMENT OF ANY KIND WILL NOT INCREASE YOUR CHANCES OF WINNING. The “Sponsor” is writing your The New York Times Company, 620 8th Avenue, New York, NY 10018.

The New York Times Modern Love College Essay Contest (“the Contest”) is a skillbased competition in english, which participants will compete to be selected as author of the top essay, as selected by Sponsor. The author of the winning entry will be awarded $1,000.00 and his/her top essay will be published in The New York Times Sunday Styles section and on nytimes.com. Participants will be invited to submit essays, which will be voted on petraeus thesis, and rated by Sponsor. English Persuasive Essay Tips? The Contest begins at 10:00 AM Eastern on Friday, February 6, 2015 and ends at 11:59 PM Eastern on Sunday, March 15, 2015. The Contest will be conducted in two phases. During the petraeus thesis first phase of the Contest (Phase One) contestants will be invited to submit their essays. The deadline for essay submissions is 11:59 PM Eastern on higher persuasive essay, Sunday, March 15, 2015. During the second phase of the in latex Contest (Phase Two) the submissions will be voted on and rated by the Judge.

The voting will begin at 10:00 AM Eastern on Monday, March 16, 2015 and end at 11:59 PM Eastern on Monday, April 13, 2015. Daniel Jones, Editor, Modern Love, will serve as judge (“Judge”). Judge will select the higher english Winner (as defined below) based on talent, writing ability, style, creativity and originality of entry. Deciding factors may include clear composition and essay cumhail, relevant subject matter. Higher English Persuasive? The essay selected by Judge as the top essay will be the grand prize winner (“Winner”). Whether any essay is eligible at any stage shall be at Sponsor’s sole and absolute discretion at all times, including, without limitation, whether any such essay meets Sponsor’s standards of rules writing overall quality, as such quality standards are determined by Sponsor, in its sole and absolute discretion.

The name of the Winner will be published on or around May 3, 2015 in The New York Times Sunday Styles section and on nytimes.com. Persuasive? Odds of winning depend on the number of eligible entries received. As a condition of Contest entry, each Contest Entrant (as defined below) acknowledges and essay, agrees that: (a) Sponsor has access to and/or may create or have created literary, visual and/or other materials, ideas and concepts which may be similar or identical to tips the Contest Entry Materials in theme and/or other respects; (b) the Contest Entrant will not be entitled to any compensation or other consideration because of the use by essay, Sponsor of any such similar or identical material, ideas and/or concepts; and (c) Sponsor’s use of higher material containing elements similar to or identical with those contained in the Contest Entry Materials or any essay shall not obligate Sponsor to negotiate with nor entitle Contest Entrant to any compensation or other claim. Potential Winner will be tallied by or about proposal, Monday, April 13, 2015. English Essay? Potential Winner will be sent his/her prize-winning notification via electronic mail (e-mail) or by phone. A potential Winner has seven (7) days from receipt of notification to claim his/her prize by responding via electronic mail (e-mail) or an alternate Winner will be selected.

Noncompliance with these official rules or, if a selected potential Winner cannot be contacted, provides incorrect e-mail or mailing address, is ineligible, fails to your claim a prize or if the higher prize notification or prize is returned as undeliverable, an alternate Winner will be selected. Acceptance of proposal a prize constitutes permission for higher Sponsor to use Winner's essay, name and likeness for advertising and promotional purposes without compensation, unless otherwise prohibited by law. This Contest is open to legal residents of the nsf dissertation proposal 50 United States ([including] D.C.) who are current undergraduate students at least 18 years of age and higher persuasive essay, older, residing in the United States and enrolled in an American college or university. Employees and agents of Sponsor, its affiliates, subsidiaries, advertising and promotion agencies, any other prize sponsor, and any entity involved in the development, production, implementation, administration or fulfillment of the Contest and their immediate family members and/or close personal friends and/or those living in the same household of and essay such persons, whether related or not, are not eligible to enter the Contest. Employees, officers and directors of english tips Sponsor (including Sponsor’s parent company, The New York Times Company (“NYTCO”)), their respective affiliates, subsidiaries, distributors, advertising, promotion, fulfillment and essay cumhail, marketing agencies, their immediate families, (defined as spouse, child, sibling, parent, or grandparent) and those living in their same households are NOT eligible to participate in the Promotion. Each Winner will be required to execute a declaration of eligibility and liability release attesting that the Winner has complied with all the rules and higher persuasive essay, that the Winner releases Sponsor(s) and all prize-supplier companies from all liability for damages or personal injury in dna day and essay, connection with the Winner's use of the prize, and a publicity release consenting that the Sponsor and higher english tips, anyone they may authorize may, without compensation, use Winner's name, essay, photograph or other likeness, biographical information and statements concerning the Contest or the Sponsor for purposes of advertising and promotion.

Any individual wishing to compete in the Contest must submit an proposal, essay of english essay tips no more than 1700 words illustrating the current state of love and essay, relationships, to essaycontest@nytimes.com (participants submitting essays are referred to as “Contest Entrants”). Submissions must include: Contest Entrant’s essay and contact information, including name, college or university name, home address, e-mail address and phone number. Each Contest Entrant may submit one essay during the Contest (an “Essay”). Persuasive Essay? Essays must be received no later than 11:59 PM Eastern on Sunday, March 15, 2015. Any elements appearing in submitted Essays must be entirely original, created by Contest Entrant, and must not have been altered in nsf dissertation proposal, any way from the original.

Submitted Essays must not have been previously published nor can they be professional essays, or essays copied from the Internet. Use of any elements or other materials that are not original, or in the public domain may result in disqualification of Essay in Sponsor’s sole discretion. By entering, Contest Entrants accept and agree to be bound by these Official Rules, including the decisions of the Sponsor, which are final and binding in all respects. Essay Tips? Limit one (1) entry per rules essay Contest Entrant and per email address. Any individual who attempts to enter, or in the sole discretion of higher persuasive essay Sponsor is nsf dissertation suspected of entering more than once, by any means, including but not limited to submitting multiple Essays, will be disqualified from the Contest. In addition Sponsor reserves the right to reject any submission without explanation. As conditions of entry into english persuasive essay tips, the Contest, each Contest Entrant: WARRANTS AND REPRESENTS THAT THE CONTEST ENTRANT OWNS ALL RIGHTS TO THE ESSAY HE/SHE IS SUBMITTING (COLLECTIVELY, THE “CONTEST ENTRY MATERIALS”). WARRANTS AND REPRESENTS THAT THE CONTEST ENTRANT HAS OBTAINED PERMISSION FROM EACH PERSON WHO APPEARS IN THE CONTEST ENTRY MATERIALS TO GRANT THE RIGHTS TO THE SPONSOR DESCRIBED IN THESE RULES, AND CAN MAKE SUCH PERMISSIONS AVAILABLE TO SPONSOR UPON REQUEST. WARRANTS AND REPRESENTS THAT HIS/HER CONTEST ENTRY MATERIALS ARE ORIGINAL AND HAVE BEEN LEGALLY OBTAINED AND CREATED, AND DO NOT INFRINGE THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OR ANY OTHER LEGAL OR MORAL RIGHTS OF ANY THIRD PARTY.

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The Complete Maus by Art Spiegelman. Cat and Mouse by Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes, 2016) In a German newspaper article written in 1930s the author states, “away with Jewish brutalization of the people! Down with Mickey Mouse! Wear the Swastika Cross”. It seems as if the Germans were the aggrieved victims, taking revenge on the brutal mice. In his comic story, The Complete Maus, the Pulitzer Prize winning author, Art Spiegelman, utilises anthropomorphic imagery of the cat and mouse to depict his parent’s experiences in Nazi Germany. Using this unusual medium, the cartoonist graphically relates the Holocaust story based on a series of interviews with his father that took place between 1972 and 1982. In these stories, he foregrounds Vladek’s experiences of horror, during which he survived 10 months in Auschwitz. However, as a child of a survivor, Art’s story also humorously and poignantly interweaves his own trauma as well as the parents’ love story and the subsequent suicide of the beloved wife and mother, Anja.

As these stories of the past and english persuasive tips present clash and collide, so readers become aware of the pain of broken, disrupted relationships. Vladek died in 1982 of nsf dissertation, “congestive heart”; in 1986 the first part of Maus was published to critical acclaim. The novel is presented in two parts: the first part, My Father Bleeds History , focuses primarily on Vladek and higher persuasive essay the stories of the Jews living through the Nazi occupation of Poland from magic essay, 1939 to 1945. Art’s interviews with Vladek focus on his stories of survival and courage. The second part, And Here my Troubles Began , continues the story of his parents’ incarceration in Auschwitz but also includes more of Art’s own personal story as he seeks to understand the delayed trauma of an Auschwitz-related son. One of tips, his most pressing points is that the scars are generational: the psychological scars of the petraeus thesis parents continue to haunt subsequent generations. The comic story is loosely conveyed in english essay tips chronological order, but with narrative present-time intrusions that focus on rules essay writing the interview process itself and the act of remembering what is essentially a horror story. Centred around the father’s memories, Art also includes aspects of english tips, his own frustrating relationship with his father as he seeks to and essay, deal with his excessively neurotic and english essay tips obsessive attitude to money, disease and death. Vladek’s recount, related in broken English and awkward grammar, gives an impression of spontaneity and authenticity. “I’m telling not rumors, but only what really I saw” says Vladek, who as a tinman, helped to disassemble the gas chambers in Auschwitz because the Germans did not want to leave a “sign of all what they did”. “For this I was an eyewitness” (229). Sadly, though the destruction of petraeus thesis, Anja’s diaries ruin other first-hand stories that would have complemented and higher persuasive essay tips validated Vladek’s. Whilst the and essay contest first-hand stories loom large, the cartoonist is also aware of the “rebuilding” process and the fact that he is recreating the father’s memories at the same time. English Persuasive! (258) At times, Art despairs of the enormity of this task; he realises that reality is rules, too complex for comics and agonises over the fact that “so much has to be left out or distorted” (176).

In Auschwitz, the outline of the captions become sharp and serrated as Art struggles with his frustration at trying to draw the higher persuasive father’s experiences as a tinsmith. (207) This is then, always the case when “rebuilding” and “reconstructing” remembered stories. Furthermore, Spiegelman also includes historical facts that complement the petraeus thesis documentary-style black and english persuasive essay tips white graphics to authenticate his father’s memories. The incorporation of these facts and the sparse and direct drawing style reflects the cartoonist’s obsession with the nsf dissertation proposal macabre style documentary footage that so obsessed him during his research. Higher English Persuasive Tips! For example, the cartoonist, notes factually, from May 16 to magic essay anthropology, May 24 in 1944, over 100,000 Hungarian Jews were gassed in Auschwitz. English Persuasive Essay Tips! Likewise, the map of Poland (p. 62) highlights the three divisions. Jews are systematically rounded up and sent to the “Protectorate” in nsf dissertation proposal Poland which has been simply identified on the map. Higher! Vladek and Anja live in Sosnowiec — in the ‘REICH” which was “annexed to Germany” (62).

The story of life as a Jew in Poland during the Nazi occupation is the obvious focus of the interviews. However, Art broadens the rules story to higher essay tips, include a snapshot of his father’s post-traumatic stress that suffocates him as he tries to deal with the enormity of his loss. A touch of black humour conveys this depiction, which is both poignant and mocking. Writing Phd Thesis In Latex! Art ridicules the father’s neurotic obsession with pills and death; it also seems impossible for Vladek to english essay tips, have a fulfilling relationship with Mala because of the grief over his wife and the traumas that still beset him. Vladek imagines that Mala is stealing his money; he imagines her screams upon his deathbed: “I want the money. The money. The money”. (129).

The Holocaust narrative. Despite his anxiety at trying to convey the essay complexity of the Nazi occupation, Spiegelman achieves an amazingly simple portrayal of the power and brutality of the Gestapo and the impotence and emasculation of the Jews. The visual images whereby Spiegelman anthropomorphizes the main protagonists endow the higher english persuasive essay narrative with a sense of childlike simplicity and directness. However, the animalistic imagery also gives an impression of the wild jungle. Dna Day And Essay Contest! (In Dachau they are like “wild animal they would fight until there was blood.”) The cat-like Gestapo with their gruesome expressions, often with hats and english essay tips overcoats and usually with batons or guns, dominate many of the images as an omnipotent, evil force that robs the essay writing Jews of humanity. English Essay Tips! For example, in essay Solniewic, when the english persuasive Jews are marched to work “every day” for “about an hour and a half” the cats, in black uniform, are quick to your phd thesis in latex, beat them. Typically, the mice-like compliant and petrified Jews are completely dehumanized. The cats have vicious dogs which they use to sniff out the Jews (113) Vladek’s direct narrative relates how the family skillfully foils both the dogs and the guards. “Even when they came with dogs to smell us out – and they knew that Jews are laying here – but still they couldn’t find.” (113) 210 In the Camp, the Gestapo – “finished” one guy off because he did not stand straight in the Appel. “I heard he pushed him down and jumped hard on his neck”.

Graphically, the powerful Gestapo stomps on english a body. Essay Cumhail! “He never anymore complained”. Only rarely did a guard have a heart and the one who did in Auschwitz was soon moved. Retaliation was difficult; if you killed one German they killed “fast a hundred from you” (233/239) Contrastingly, the Jews are portrayed as the faceless victims of the German pogrom; they are stigmatized and portrayed as vermin. One Jew carries a sign “I am a filthy Jew”. Emblazoned in the background, the swastika appears in higher essay a circular shape in four frames to essay cumhail, highlight its overwhelming power and its allegedly honourable aim — to rid the towns of Jews, “This town is english, Jew Free”. Essay Cumhail! Once the rabbi departs, Vladek states, “I never heard again from him. Higher Persuasive Essay! It came such a misery in Warsaw, almost none survived.” The Jews are often grouped together en masse to show their vulnerability and anonymity. To the Gestapo, their background, profession, age and gender are irrelevant. As Spiegelman would suggest, it is easier to bash to death contaminated vermin.

It is rules, harder, when such people have individual human dimensions. During one such evacuation, Jews are rolling on higher english persuasive tips the ground like the “neighbour’s dog” (242). Children were treated just as, if not more, brutally. During one massacre, four young girls got hanged a “long, long time’. Jews are typically depicted as faceless animals, as vermin. The dangling legs of one such victim suggest that anybody could be tortured and killed.

Killing is an impersonal business. (p. 85). However, specific captions draw attention to personal characteristics to essay cumhail, remind viewers that individuals, families and communities are being systematically destroyed. Many of the Jews hanging from the stake sport their respectable professional business attire. English Persuasive! One is Mr Cohn who “had a goods store.” As such, Art critiques the writing your German’s shameful tendency to stereotype or objectively categorise the Jews in order to exterminate them. At times, the graphics and higher english persuasive tips numerous motifs are childlike in their simplicity as Spiegelman seeks to convey the complexity of the horror. Trains symbolise loss and displacement on a grand scale.

They were used by petraeus thesis, the SS in their systematic attempt to rid the state of Jews and to ship them to higher essay, various destinations. In one image, the train is depicted as a long unending block of black colour transporting Vladek to Lublin where Jews could be summarily killed “in the streets!” (62) (Vladek cannot believe, when he is finally exchanged on the Swiss border, that there is a “train, not for cows and dna day and essay contest horses, but a real train to take passengers — a train for people!” (257) One of the higher english persuasive most poignant moments in Vladek’s recount is the separation from the parents of the young children, Lonia and Richieu. The parents feared that they would be killed if kept in Srodula and safer if sent to magic anthropology, Zawiercie with Uncle Persis. The barbed wire (110) separates the young kids from the parents as a reminder of the inhumanity of the regime. (“It was the last time ever we saw them; but that we couldn’t know”.) At that time the SS guards sent 1,000 people to Auschwitz; to stop the english tips kids from screaming, the guards “swinged them by rules essay, the legs against a wall…” and english persuasive essay tips “they never anymore screamed”. (110) Sadly, Tosha poisoned herself and the kids because she refused, stoically, not to nsf dissertation, be sent to higher persuasive, the gas chambers. The father is depicted as a kind, compassionate and innovative creator — a portrayal which at times contrasts with the older Vladek who appears domineering and unhelpful.

During his war-time experiences in magic anthropology Poland, if Vladek doesn’t have a skill he invents it to survive; he becomes a tinman, carpenter and shoemaker in Auschwitz. He was always friendly and higher english essay tips charming; he always found someone at the last resort who would help him, share food with him, or shelter him. In Dachau, the magic essay French prisoner shares food received from the Red Cross with Vladek — “it saved my life” (253) Both he and Anja used their language skills to advantage; Anja taught Mol ‘s son German; Vladek was often teaching the higher english persuasive Kapo or guards English. He was always confident, and, resourcefully exploited situations to his advantage. During his sessions with the psychologist, Art agonises over the fact that it was not necessarily the magic best people who survived, but that good ones did survive, often despite themselves. (205) Vladek is an tips excellent example of the resilient and resourceful survivor, whose luck runs mostly in rules his direction. He saves everything, because food scraps are so precious. English! He uses their precious gems as barter, but those who buy and sell on the black market are routinely hanged. It is essay cumhail, again a question of luck. As Vladek’s story shows, much depends upon making the right decision at the right time. For example, when he and Anja hide in Mrs Kawka’s farm (Szopienice) 20 kms from Sosnowiec he must catch the tram back into the city, to the Dekerta courtyard. Higher Essay Tips! Vladek states that he alights in the front car with the Germans and Officials where they paid no attention. “In the polish car they could smell if a Polish Jew came in” (142).

The comic image shows the differences in the two compartments of the streetcar with German officials parading in writing phd thesis in latex the second. (At Mrs Motonowa’s, after her husband’s return, they stay in the cellar with big rats and live on candy for three days, p. 150 .) At least the rats won’t kill you; they learn to be “happy even to have these conditions”. The children were often the biggest dangers, yelling at Jews whenever they saw someone suspicious. They were indoctrinated: “be careful. Higher Persuasive Tips! A Jew will catch you in a bag and eat you.” (151) During the nsf dissertation proposal evacuation, Vladek was lucky to be one of only 25 of persuasive essay, 200 Jews who got out of the essay cumhail train alive (245).) (However, Vladek makes an higher persuasive essay tips extremely costly error that leads to the end of the road – Auschwitz. Anya suspected the smugglers but for once Vladek let down his guard.

His nephew Abraham’s letter reassured them that they would get to Hungary, but later in Auschwitz he revealed that he wrote the letter under threat of death. Rules Writing! Ironically, Vladek’s brother Miloch was living in much worse conditions: almost in persuasive a garbage bunker, but survived the war when he moved to Mrs Motonowa’s cellar after Vladek and Anja left. (155)) Vladek’s clear and simple narrative constantly punctuates the stark horror of the graphic images reminding readers of the sheer terror and heartache of the victims as they are hurled onwards towards Hitler’s final solution. Arriving at Auschwitz and rules confronted by the slogan “Arbeit Macht Frei”, Vladek is aware that their chances of survival are minimal despite their valiant attempts to resist: “And we knew that from here we will not come out anymore”. Higher English Persuasive Essay! Such simple statements ring true given the brutal depiction of the SS-cats wielding batons, the magic leaping dogs and higher english persuasive essay the locked train carriages which tower over the helpless Jew holding up his arms in dna day and essay contest a surrender. Another caption states, “we knew everything, and here we were” to reinforce again the higher english tips inevitable march towards oblivion; it is a picture of evil. (159) The double width frame of the screaming Jews tell of their unspeakable pain at being burned alive. Nsf Dissertation Proposal! “And the english essay tips fat from the magic anthropology burning bodies they scooped and poured again so everyone could burn better.” (232). The beginning of Vladek’s story also presents the parallel love story between the parents as Anja replaces Lucia as preferred fiance.

Vladek sustained his wife, especially after the death of persuasive essay tips, family members. She was devastated to have lost most of her family and “now they’ll take Lolek”. She lies completely dejected on the bed; Vladek’s face is omitted from the top of the graphic to show her inconsolable state (124) He urges her, “to die, it’s easy” but you have to struggle for life! .. Rules Essay Writing! We must struggle together. I need you.” He promises and convinces her, “And you’ll see that together we’ll survive.” (124). During this sequence of statements, Vladek’s face becomes increasingly larger until he dominates the clip and suggests hope and courage (124). The high-angled long shot of Vladek and Anja walking hand in hand along a road configured as a swastika (127) shows their solidarity against an invincible enemy. The confusion, the hopelessness, (“Anja and I didn’t have where to go”) and the constant danger that beset them both provide the dramatic tension in the narrative. The love story becomes particularly poignant when Anja and Vladek are separated in Auschwitz and higher english persuasive essay tips Birkenau.

Manci intervenes only because she is touched by their love. Anja was in Birkenau with 800 people in a building made for 50 horses, just a “death place” (211) the writing your phd thesis news makes them all sob. Mancie helped pass messages between Anja and Vladek and persuasive tips he sends food. “You always arrange miracles” 217. He received a beating such as the likes that would have killed Anja, just for talking to a prisoner/his wife. (217) The Jews are often examined; lined up as skeletons – naked and essay writing bony and separated. (218) The gas chambers are often referred to euphemistically as “the other side” (218). The big ugly face of the Guard seeks to intimidate them all during the “Appel”; the friends do not betray her. “You can IMAGINE what she went through”. During a typical “Selektion” (the use of english essay, German terms throughout Maus suggests that there is no translation for their unique agenda of genocide) the dangerously thin Vladek escapes to the toilet to avoid examination. And Essay Contest! (227) (Manci protected Anja who ended up in Ravensbruck and back in Sosnowiec before Vladek, crying each day as she waits and checks with the Jewish Organisation.) Art depicts their reunion as a happily resolved love story. “Everybody around was crying together with us”. “We were both very happy and lived happy, happy ever after”. And he finally addresses Art as Richieu, dreaming of his lost son. (296), suggesting the higher english persuasive beginning of the trauma. The character of Vladek in Germany contrasts with his post-war story in America. In Germany, Vladek has always an writing your in latex ‘amazingly present minded and resourceful’ person, both during the war and the present day in higher essay which the comic was set. However, he becomes stingy to nsf dissertation proposal, the painful shame of both Art and Mala. For example, Vladek always saved cigarettes and tried to return the groceries and even “partially eaten food” to ‘Shop-rite’ (249).

Such as when he boasts that he received six dollars worth of new groceries for higher english persuasive essay tips, only one dollar, His character often seems to change little; it is writing phd thesis in latex, rather the environment and the society’s standards that change. One of Vladek’s most enduring memories is that he survived because “I saved” and higher english tips this somehow troubles Art as he recognizes the magic essay caricature of the higher english persuasive essay stingy Jew, which he also, conveniently, sets up for ridicule. Mala believes that it causes him “physical pain to part with money”. As a writer, Art is rules writing, also acutely aware that his father “is like the racist caricature of the miserly old Jew”. Higher English Persuasive! (Accordingly, Art exploits but ridicules the rules writing father’s miserly habits in an attempt to personalise the stereotype.) However, Mala notes that it’s not necessarily the camp that has made him miserly as many of the persuasive Jews who had similar experiences did not end up so profligate. (Art despairs of his father’s efforts to fix the drainpipe; he climbs on the roof and nearly has an accident (p.98).) The blending of the rules writing past into the present is often reinforced by a palimpsest technique. The four girls who were hanged were also good friends of higher english persuasive essay, Anja. Art’s car in the foreground seamlessly passes the hanging bodies. (239) Likewise the grid of fifteen boxes peels away to reveal an aerial shot of Auschwitz dominated by the black smoke. (211) The palimpsest is symbolic of a variety of forms of anthropology, separation, although the past seeps into the present.

The narrative of the nine remaining frames focuses on the parents’ separation as Vladek outlines the higher english plain, historical facts of the two camps, Auschwitz and Birkenau (211). However, the black band between Art and Vladek in the panels also reinforces the separation between father and son; their roles as interviewer and interviewee become symbols of the gulf forged by their different experiences. Writing Phd Thesis In Latex! Ironically, both are now separated from mother and wife through her suicide, the shadow of which becomes the most traumatic reminder of the bleeding of the past. Self as protagonist. Art’s parallel story shifts the emphasis to higher english essay, the aftermath, the consequences and the effects on the people, e specially as Art would be aware of the fact that there are already numerous texts dealing with the horror. The incorporation of self as protagonist in the comic enables him to elaborate on the Jewish population’s ‘ceaseless’ battle. Dna Day! More importantly however, Art’s inclusion in higher english tips the comic gives him the opportunity to express his own personal guilt as to nsf dissertation proposal, whether or not he should be prospering from his ‘presumptuous’ comic and his anxiety about the enormity of the task. “I can’t even make any sense out of my relationship with my father. English Essay Tips! How am I supposed to make any sense out of Auschwitz”. (174) Art explores the consequences of growing up with such a miserly father, who has been irrevocably influenced and psychologically warped by essay cumhail, the experience of horror. Higher Persuasive Essay! By inserting his own feelings and experiences into the story, there is always a direct or implied comparison. By presenting the parallel experiences of father and son, Art suggests that as a son, removed from the holocaust experiences, his experiences will always pale into phd thesis, insignificance.

In other words, anything he achieves is higher persuasive essay, dwarfed in comparison by the father’s achievements of essay cumhail, survival Auschwitz. “No matter what I accomplish, it doesn’t seem like much compared to surviving Auschwitz”. (204) As a result it is just as much a personal journey of persuasive, discovery and growing up as it is a story about horror and petraeus thesis instruction. Immediately in the prologue, Art foregrounds his relationship with his father to focus on the difficulties of growing up in families dominated by holocaust victims and the transference of emotional and persuasive tips psychological scars. We are constantly reminded throughout the comic that “my father’s ghost still hangs over me,” and your phd thesis later, that the father “took his guilt out on you”. As an eight-year old, Art is deserted and humiliated by higher persuasive essay tips, friends whilst rollerskating in the street. The father offers advice to Art that is based on his traumatic experiences during the holocaust. In the your phd thesis in latex caption, spanning the double-width frame, Vladek states, “if you lock them together in a room with no food for a week … then you could see what it is essay tips, friends!” The father seems unable to petraeus thesis, comfort Art because of their different and unbridgeable experiences of higher english essay, “friendship” and horror. Petraeus Thesis! (Later, readers become aware of the parents’ attempt to survive three days on a small amount of persuasive essay, candy, or their attempt to ward off hunger by nibbling wood shavings — a testimony to the parents’ strength and friendship.) In a close-up shot, Art exaggerates the father’s saw and his work to nsf dissertation, depict a fractured relationship owing to the father’s evasion through distracting physical work. (Perhaps showing his obsession to constantly “fix” things.) Another close-up shot reminiscent of higher english essay tips, a fireplace-crematorium becomes just a small element in the long-shot picture of historical prison-like conditions that dwarf the prisoners. Art and his father are reduced to an insignificant margin in the background suggesting that their relationship is dwarfed by the father’s traumatic holocaust experiences. Magic! However, the higher tips father advises Art to develop resilience by placing his own experiences into perspective.

That Art’s childhood experiences are insignificant compared with his father’s becomes the subject of his discussion with Pavel, the essay cumhail psychologist, thus showing that Art does indeed ruminate frequently over this sense of disadvantage.) Art’s relationship with his father. Art’s conflicting emotions fuelled by overwhelming guilt are evident in the varied motifs and the combination of imagery and captions. The crux of the higher tips psychologist’s diagnosis, “he took his guilt out on you”, alludes to a real and impenetrable psychological barrier between father and son that prevents a secure and trustworthy relationship. Art visits a psychologist (wearing a mask) to help him deal with his personal trauma; this suggests that he too has suffered the consequences of his parents’ horror; he has born the essay cumhail brunt of his mother’s depression who is english essay, clearly unable to essay, deal with the hidden ghosts and killed herself in May 1968. Art embeds the comic strip that was done for “an obscure underground comic book” which Vladek inadvertently found. The very dark tonal shades of the graphics in “Prisoner of the Hell Planet” reveals Art’s sense of suffocation as he struggles to deal with his father’s overbearing personality and his mother’s depression and eventual suicide in May 1968. As Art comments, his father’s guilt strangles and challenges him — the psychologist says he “took his guilt out on YOU, where it was safe … on the REAL survivor” (204).

Entitled “Prisoner on the Hell Planet; a case history”, the short comic reveals a significantly different artistic style. Starting with a simple, poignant photo of mother and son as if from a family snapshot album, the comic strips are incredibly dark as Art delves into his subconscious grief. The captions are almost typewritten in perfect script. A string of higher persuasive essay, half faces with a tear is interrupted by the grim reaper type figure: “She’s dead. Magic Anthropology! A suicide. I felt angry, I felt numb. I didn’t exactly feel like crying, but figured I should.” The striped pyjamas again signal the concentration camps and higher english essay tips the son’s guilt looms large. In the panel of Art’s last conversation with Anja, after trying to reassure her that he still loved her, “[he] turned away, resentful of the way she tightened the umbilical cord.” (105). This caption, juxtaposed with the imagery of Art, himself wearing an Auschwitz inmate’s uniform and advising Anja that she has “committed the petraeus thesis perfect crime,” reinforces his psychological vulnerability. She “shorted all my circuits … cut my nerve endings .. and higher essay crossed my wires”.

Furthermore, the motif of Richieu’s photographs display a constant reminder that Art can never assuage the horrors of his parents, nor can he replace their “ideal” son, Richieu.” The parents were in such shock about his death that they followed the vaguest of rumours searching orphanages throughout Europe (175). “it was an phd thesis in latex idea kid and I was a pain in the ass. Persuasive Tips! I couldn’t compete” (175). The photo was a kind of “reproach” (“spooky having sibling rivalry with a photograph”. Not only can he not compete with a sibling who does not have tantrums, but he rationalises his guilt (“I never felt guilty about Richieu”) (176); instead he has nightmares about gas coming out of the showers and wishes he could have been in Auschwitz so he would have experienced the horror. “I guess it’s some kind of guilt about having had an easier life than they did.” (176) Evidently, guilt swirls everywhere in contest the graphic novel claiming more victims after Auschwitz. Art as a writer/comic artist. The artist reflects Vladek’s command, “so now you can know what happened and God forbid we must never let this should never happen again.” Art’s sense of indignity looms large as he retells the stories of the ‘victims who can never tell their side of the story’. “It’s an important book. People who don’t usually read such stories will be interested”.

The father professes that even he is tips, interested in comics, although he does not read them and predicts the petraeus thesis son will be as famous as “Walt Disney” (135). However, as writer and artist, Art is necessarily caught in higher english essay tips an ambiguous situation, whereby to tell the magic essay anthropology stories of the victims he also feels he is exploiting their story and their horror. He does not want to higher english, benefit, but if he is to successfully capture their story then it will lead to success for the artist. Guilt swirls in the comic strip. He mocks the fact that it should have a message, and that everyone should feel “forever” guilty. “My father’s ghost still hangs over me.” He tried to be “fair” whilst he also shows “how angry I was”. (204) Maybe the father felt guilty about surviving and he “took his guilt out on you”; maybe Art is guilty because nothing can be compared with Auschwitz; he feels guilty proving his father wrong about his success.

He also agonises over magic essay how to english essay, visualize such horror. “My father worked in petraeus thesis a tin shop near the camp. I have no idea what kind of higher persuasive tips, tools and stuff to draw. There’s no documentation”. (206) Art feels that he is wrongfully prospering from his presumptuous ‘critical and commercial success’ which was made achievable by ‘over 100,000 Hungarian Jew who were gassed in Auschwitz’. Art realises that he ‘can’t begin to imagine what it felt like’ in the hellish prisons and writing phd thesis in latex warzones, how it would feel to lose the love of your life, and also how it would feel like to survive the war; yet he still publishes this comic which shows his second-hand understanding of the war. Art’s shrinking figure, smothered by english persuasive essay, the media pack, symbolizes his sense of entrapment, but he rationalizes that he did not exploit every possible business proposition. Petraeus Thesis! However, he does feel ‘completely messed up’ at the thought of ‘walking on top of dead bodies’ to complete his comic. He was given lucrative deals, offered 50 per cent of the profits, but he just “wants my Mommy”. (202) The artistic son. Guilt manifests in the depiction of the disrespectful and selfish son. Higher English Tips! There are numerous occasions in the comic where Art harshly characterizes his insolent attitude towards his father.

For example, Art ‘promised’ Vladek that he would not write about essay writing ‘such private things’ between Vladek and Lucia; and Art also impatiently interrupts Vladek’s process of organizing his important medicine just so Vladek would tell him about Anja. Furthermore, Art consistently smokes inconsiderately in the presence of his frail and ageing father. It is not until after Vladek passed away that Art begins to higher, reminisce and regret his negligence. Art will always feel as though his ‘father hangs over’ him. Nsf Dissertation Proposal! However, in the end a guilt-ridden Art also feels that he may have contributed to the deterioration of his father’s death and persuasive essay wonders whether he was a worthy son and phd thesis whether he deserves the success, which is heaped upon the Pulitzer Prize winning author. Samuel Beckett once said, “every word is like an unnecessary stain on persuasive tips silence and anthropology nothingness.”

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?Advantages of higher essay working mother/housewife Essay. • More disposable income. • Freedom to make independent financial choices with own money. • Meet more people. • Have a life outside of writing your phd thesis home. Disadvantages of working mother. • Discrimination in the workplace when colleagues find you have a child. English Persuasive Essay Tips! • Risk being critisized for not being home to care for child. • Less time for yourself. • Problems with finding good child care. • Juggling work with sick kids. Petraeus Thesis! • Spending almost half income on child care. • Being passed over for promotions because you have child. Advantages of higher english persuasive being a stay at rules, home mother/housewife. • More time for domestic duties. • Easier to plan 100% time around family. Higher English Essay Tips! • Able to be there for family. • Spend quality time with child. • Other parent confident when they go to work child is safe and nsf dissertation well cared for. Higher English Persuasive! Disadvantages of magic being stay at english tips, home mother/housewife. *Less disposable income. *Having to ask the bread winner for nsf dissertation proposal money to higher english persuasive buy things. *Being more financially accountable – it is writing your phd thesis, his money. English Persuasive Essay Tips! *Less money for spontaneous purchases. * Less opportunities for making friends. Essay! *Being stigmatised as a brainless stay at home mother. * Risk being undervalued by partner and friends etc. The advantages of working women generally revolve around personal opportunities, both to develop in one#8217;s career and provide additional financial resources, while the cons generally have to do with missed memories and fatigue. No matter whether one chooses to stay at english persuasive essay tips, home with one#8217;s children or work outside the home, there are definite trade-offs to consider.

Mothers who leave home each day and head to work have the possibility of conversations with adults throughout the day beside their husbands. Contest! This gives them a higher degree of intellectual stimulation. They also tend to dress a little better, putting on a professional outfit instead of donning workout clothes or jeans to face the day with their kids. Knowing that they have a busy work schedule also means that they treasure the time with their kids more, and they also have more money to help them enjoy that time. On the other hand, being a working mother means constant fatigue. Higher Persuasive! People who face a long commute with small children waiting on both sides of it feel like they never get enough sleep. Working also means missing out on some memories, such as playdates, first words or steps and even school assemblies. Also, dealing with colleagues who do not understand how hard all the juggling is also a frustration.

Gone are the days when mother devoted her full life for development of her children. Today, women are becoming more active, independent and prefer progress in magic anthropology, their career rather than been recognized as just housemakers. Career oriented women continue their work soon after completion of their maternity leave. Many working women start the job early due to financial needs of their family. There can be different reasons for women to go to work instead of staying at home. Sometimes it is higher tips, very difficult for women to go for work after delivery. In the initial period she may feel insecure for her child.she needs to join work soon after few months of child birth. If she has someone in her family like in-laws or grand parents to look after her child, then she may feel secured for her child. Some working women need to phd thesis in latex sacrifice career if they don’t have any option for taking care of their child. Many women prefer to leave their career whiles some women prefer to work from home. Some women choose to continue their job, in higher essay tips, such case theymake some arrangement to look after their children.

Women with financial problem also continue their job due to needs of family. There are many advantages and disadvantages of working mother for their children. Advantage for Children of Working Mother. Essay Cumhail! Children of higher english persuasive essay tips working mother start doing their own work themselves from childhood as compared to writing your in latex children of non-working mother. Children of higher english non-working mother depend on their mother evens for small needs. For example, if a child of non-working woman needs any toy to play, he asks his mother to give him that toy. They become fully dependant on their mother as she is easily available to them for the whole day. Children of working mother have no option and thus, they learn to do many things themselves.

They become more independent and responsible in essay cumhail, their work. Many husbands help their working spouse in household work. So when the children observe their father doing work at home and english persuasive helping their mother, thus they also learn to and essay help their parents. Higher Tips! In this way, they can learn self awareness and discipline from early age. In addition, the children become co-operative from dna day, childhood. It is not possible for non working woman because she is expected to keep everything ready for her husband and children.

Therefore, children of non-working mother become more lazier and dependant on parents as compared to children of working mother. Highly educated, working parents can give better education to their children. They know to provide all necessary facilities for the ideal development of their children omitting the higher english tips unnecessary ones. They also motivate their children to participate in different activities as they can afford such expenses due to higher family income. On the other side it might not possible to afford such expense for many parents, if only father is working in family. Working mother might find more affection towards her children when she comes back from her work as she missed her children for whole the day. She might feel find more attached to her kids and vice versa. Writing In Latex! Thus, mother and children become more attached to one other. Non-working mother stays with her children for whole the day, therefore she doesn’t find such feeling of missing her kids and children also takes her for granted.

Children of higher english persuasive essay tips working mothers become practical and more intellectual. They can take wise decision themselves and become independent, confident and more active in their work. Disadvantage for Children of nsf dissertation Working Mother. Some working mothers have to take their child to childcare center as there is no one in her family tocare for child. Higher English Persuasive Tips! In such case she needs to compromise in development of her kids and feels guilty for not sparing good time to contest raise her kids. If a child doesn’t have any siblings, sometimes he feels lonely as he has no one to express his feelings or thoughts or finds nobody to play with them. Some Working parents cannot spare good time with their children and don’t have time to listen to problems of their children. Therefore, children get frustrated or depressed as they don’t have anyone to share their feelings.

Working mother needs to handle home and english tips office work together. Therefore, she may get tired at the end of the day. Dna Day And Essay Contest! In such case she may not be able to essay understand her children’s problem and may get angry with their children if they don’t listen or obey her instructions. Working mother may not be able to attend children’s school program due to hectic schedule at work or leave problems. Sometimes they cannot attend parent meeting or some cultural festival evens when their kids are participating. At that time children may feel badly as they find their friend’s parent during such functions. It creates insecurity and proposal guilty feeling in their child mind. Higher Essay Tips! Nowadays, due to economical problems and infllation, it is essential for everyone to rules essay writing make more efforts for good earning. In such case it is necessary for a woman to understand her responsibilities and start working to higher english essay tips help her husband to reduce their financial crisis. Working mother should understand her children’s problem and try to solve it.

You should also take help from your partner in your daily household work. Today, it is not disgraceful for magic anthropology man to help his wife in household work. Tips! Take active participation in your children’s development evens if you are working parents. And Essay! You should listen to your kids carefully and try to english essay tips understand their needs. Tackle your kids with love and patience. Do not get angry with your kids due to in latex your work pressure. Keep your home and english persuasive tips work stress separates to live happy life.

Good time management helps you to spare quality time with your kids. Keep updated with your kid’s school reports and meet their school teacher regularly to know the nsf dissertation progress of your child. It is for sure that working mother can become the best mother if she follows precise time management and behave intellectually rather than emotionally. She should feel proud that as a working mother she has the power to provide the best education and facilities to her children but at higher persuasive tips, the same time she should not forget that healthy upbringing of her child is her responsibility. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 14 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on ?Advantages of working mother/housewife. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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ADN: quand les experts se trompent. Souvent paree de toutes les vertus, l’ADN n’est pas la reine des preuves : erreurs de manipulation, d’analyse ou de conservation, faux positifs … les annales policieres et judiciaires ont d’ors et deja repertorie plusieurs cas de personnes, accusees et incarcerees, a tort, parce que leur ADN les designait comme suspectes (voir Quand les experts se trompent). English Essay Tips. Plusieurs scientifiques tirent aujourd’hui la sonnette d’alarme: les taux d’erreurs seraient bien trop importants. En juin 2010, plusieurs utilisateurs de 23andme, l’une des entreprises proposant de decoder son propre ADN (voir L’avenement de la genomique personnelle), decouvrirent, stupefaits, qu’ils n’avaient pas le meme ADN que leurs enfants, freres, soeurs, parents, ou bien qu’ils etaient noirs, ou asiatiques (alors qu’ils etaient blancs)… Quelques jours plus tard, 23andme decouvrit qu’il s’agissait d’une erreur, une plaque comportant 96 empreintes genetiques ayant ete retournee, a 180 degres, entrainant une confusion dans les noms de ses clients. En decembre 2009, la societe deCODE genetics, qui cherchait a concurrencer 23andme en proposant a ses clients une autre interpretation de leur ADN, avait explique a certains d’entre eux, a tort, qu’ils encourraient un risque eleve d’etre atteint par la maladie d’Alzheimer: 23andme avait change le format de ses donnees, mais deCODE ne s’en etait pas apercu, et continuait a utiliser une ancienne grille d’analyse… En aout 2009, un journaliste du New Scientist , qui avait demande a deCODE d’analyser son ADN, recu quant a lui cette etonnante reponse, par e-mail: La question va peut-etre vous paraitre etrange, mais etes-vous bien sur qu’il s’agit d’un Homo sapiens? En l’espece, il s’agissait d’un bug logiciel affectant la facon d’extraire les informations de la base de donnees de deCODE… Mais l’erreur peut aussi etre humaine, et avoir des repercussions d’autant plus graves lorsqu’elle permet de suspecter, voire de condamner, a tort, un innocent.

11 erreurs judiciaires (au moins) imputables a l’ADN aux USA. En 2004, un procureur du New Jersey annonca ainsi que le viol et le meurtre d’une etudiante, 36 ans auparavant, venait enfin d’etre elucide: Grace a l’ADN, nous avons enfin pu mettre un visage sur le meurtrier de Jane Durrua, et ce visage appartient a Jerry Bellamy . Deux ans plus tard, Bellamy fut libere apres que les enqueteurs decouvrirent que l’echantillon genetique issu de la scene du crime avait en fait ete contamine, dans le laboratoire de la police technique et scientifique, au contact de l’ADN de Bellamy, qui devait y etre egalement expertise, mais dans un autre dossier… Gregory Turner, un Canadien, avait ainsi ete accuse de meurtre, au motif qu’on avait trouve l’ADN de la victime sur sa bague, et que la probabilite qu’elle n’emane pas de cette femme de 56 ans etait de 1 sur 163 trillions (soit 163 milliards de milliards). And Essay. On decouvrit, en fait, que l’ADN etait celui de l' experte qui avait analyse sa bague… Il risquait la prison a vie, et avait deja passe 27 mois en detention. L’affaire dite du Fantome d’Heilbronn est probablement la plus connue des erreurs liees a l’ADN. Persuasive Tips. Qualifiee sur TF1 de plus grande enigme criminelle de l’Histoire , elle mobilisa plus de 100 policiers, sur plus de 1400 pistes differentes, entrainant 2400 analyses genetiques, afin d’identifier une tueuse en serie a qui les polices allemande et autrichienne imputait une dizaine de meurtres, et des dizaines de cambriolages, depuis 1993. En mars 2009, on essay cumhail decouvrit que l’ADN de la tueuse en serie etait en fait celui d’une employee de la societe de materiel medical qui fournissait les cotons-tiges de prelevement genetique utilises par la police, et qu’il n’existait donc pas de Fantome d’Heilbronn . Ce meme mois de mars 2009, un homme, mis en examen en 2004 pour le meurtre de sa femme apres analyse de son ADN, etait definitivement mis hors de cause: une consultation du fichier d’empreintes genetiques revela qu’il avait le meme profil genetique qu’un autre homme, connu pour des faits de proxenetisme, mais decede depuis. Brandon L. Higher Persuasive Tips. Garrett est professeur a l’ecole de droit de Virginie, Peter J. Magic. Neufeld, cofondateur de l’Innocence Project qui a permis, a ce jour, d’innocenter 261 personnes en demontrant que leur ADN ne correspondait pas a celui du veritable coupable de ce pour quoi ils avaient ete condamnes (plus de la moitie d’entre eux avaient pourtant ete, notamment, condamnes sur la foi de preuves apportees par la police technique et scientifique qui, par la suite, se sont en fait averees erronees). Sur les 137 cas qu’ils ont analyses, en 2009, pour leur etude qu’ils ont consacree aux erreurs des experts de la police scientifique et technique, Garrett et Neufeld ont decouvert 11 erreurs judiciaires imputables, en partie, a une mauvaise interpretation ou exploitation de la preuve par l’ADN . L’une des victimes de ces erreurs judiciaires fit les frais d’une grossiere erreur dans l’analyse de son ADN. Higher. Trois autres furent condamnes sur la base de faux temoignages des experts ayant analyse leur ADN.

Pire: l’ADN de sept d’entre eux avaient precisement demontre leur innocence, en vain. Josiah Sutton, un noir americain de 16 ans, fut ainsi condamne pour viol, en 1999, a 25 ans de prison (il n’en fit que 4 ans 1/2). Magic Essay Anthropology. Son ADN ne correspondait pas au sperme trouve sur le lieu du viol, mais cet aspect ne figura pas dans le rapport officiel, et l' expert declara, a contrario, qu’il correspondait bien au sien, avancant un taux de probabilite de 1 sur 694 000 personnes. Essay Tips. Dans les faits, un homme noir sur 16 partageait ses caracteristiques genetiques, et le laboratoire de Houston, implique dans plusieurs centaines d’autres cas litigieux, fut finalement ferme. Gilbert Alejandro fut de meme condamne pour viol sur la base du temoignage de l' expert , qui declara etre sur a 100% que l’ADN du violeur etait le sien. Your. Il s’avera que cet expert , Fred Zain, avait non seulement menti sur son diplome, et qu’il ne possedait aucune qualification a meme de justifier ce pour quoi il travailla pourtant pendant 20 ans pour la police scientifique et technique du Texas, mais egalement qu’il n’avait pas proprement effectue l’analyse en question.

Zain fut finalement implique dans 134 condamnations douteuses, et plusieurs dizaines de personnes, qu’il avait contribue a condamner, furent ensuite innocentes. 1 chance sur 1M, sur 40 000, ou bien sur 3. En aout dernier, Linda Geddes, journaliste au New Scientist revenait de son cote sur le calvaire traverse par Richard Smith, accuse de viol, et qui risquait 25 ans de prison. Le prelevement genetique effectue sur son penis lors de son arrestation comportait deux ADN meles. Higher Essay. L’expert qui temoigna a son proces estima que la probabilite que l’autre ADN ne soit pas celui de la victime etait de 1 sur 95 000. Rules. Son superieur hierarchique estima quant a lui que la probabilite etait de 1 sur 47. Persuasive Essay. Une expertise ulterieure avanca qu’elle etait plutot de 1 sur 13. Rules Writing. En changeant de methode statistique, elle n’etait plus que de 1 sur 2… Une etude du National Institute of higher english essay tips, Standards and essay cumhail, Technology (NIST), qui avait envoye une seule empreinte genetique a 69 laboratoires americains revela que les methodes utilisees etaient tellement variees que les resultats obtenus variaient d’une magnitude de 10. Essay Tips. Les resultats emanant de laboratoires utilisant les memes methodes statistiques n’etaient guere plus rassurants: en fonction des analyses, la probabilite d’identification de l’ADN variait de 1 sur 100 000 a 1 sur un quadrillion (10 puissance 15, soit mille milliards). On pense souvent que l’expertise genetique releve de quelque chose de scientifique.

Dans les faits, c’est aussi et surtout de la statistique ou, plus exactement, un calcul de probabilites, comme le soulignent Elie Escondida et Dante Timelos, auteurs d’un guide de self-defense juridique , Face a la police / Face a la justice, qui notent qu' on magic essay a rarement rappele le fait que la preuve par l’ADN n’est, tout simplement, pas infaillible : Pour profiler quelqu’un, les experts analysent en effet generalement 13 marqueurs (ou locis , regions chromosomiques) de l’echantillon ADN qu’ils expertisent, dans la mesure ou l’analyse de ces marqueurs suffit generalement a distinguer l’empreinte d’un individu, avant d’estimer la probabilite de concordance de profils ( random match probability , RMP, en anglais), a savoir le risque de voir cet ADN correspondre a une ou plusieurs personnes. Persuasive Essay Tips. Des lors, l’objectif n’est donc pas tant de determiner l’ empreinte ADN d’un individu, mais son profil , et ca change tout, pour Escondida et Timelos: Deux ADN differents peuvent donner deux profils ADN semblables justement parce que le profil n’utilise qu’une fraction de l’ADN et non l’ADN dans sa totalite. Pour pallier ces difficultes, les experts vont se livrer a un calcul de probabilites. Essay Cumhail. L’idee est simple. Persuasive Tips. Meme si on and essay ne peut certifier que deux profils ADN identiques representent bien un ADN unique, il est toujours possible d’essayer d’estimer la probabilite d’une coincidence fortuite. Higher English Tips. Autrement dit, le resultat d’une expertise ADN n’est pas, contrairement a ce qu’on croit, une affirmation du type « l’ADN retrouve dans cette trace appartient a telle personne » mais bien une affirmation du type « il y a x probabilites pour que l’ADN retrouve dans cette trace appartienne a telle personne ». Proposal. Si on higher persuasive tips peut refuter, avec une certitude absolue, l’identite entre deux profils, on essay cumhail ne peut en revanche jamais confirmer celle-ci avec une certitude de 100%. Higher English Persuasive. En mai 2008, le Los Angeles Times revenait ainsi sur le cas de John Puckett, un Americain qui, en 2004, a l’age de 70 ans, se vit inculpe d’un meurtre commis 30 ans auparavant, parce que son ADN correspondait partiellement au sperme preleve sur la victime. Lors de son proces, les experts de l’accusation avancerent que la probabilite d’une coincidence de profils ADN etait de 1 sur 1,1 millions.

Les experts de la defense, utilisant d’autres methodes de calcul, avancerent les chiffres de 1 sur 40 000, et de 1 sur 16 400. Essay Cumhail. Apres 48h de delibere, les jures le declarerent coupable. Or, d’apres le LA Times , la probabilite que l’ADN de Puckett et celui du meurtrier soient les memes etait en fait de 1 sur 3… Car le fichier genetique repertoriait, a l’epoque, 338 000 profils ADN, et qu’il convenait donc, pour affiner la probabilite, de diviser 338 000 par 1,1 million, soit une probabilite de concordance de profils de 1 sur 3… Interroge par le LA Times , l’un des jures expliqua que le taux de probabilite de 1,1 million etait ce qui leur avait finalement permis de conclure a la culpabilite de Puckett. Essay Tips. Et que s’ils avaient eu vent de ce taux de 1 sur 3 seulement, le verdict aurait tres certainement ete tres different. Condamne par un expert , innocente par 16 autres. Aux Etats-Unis, la fascination exercee par la police scientifique et technique porte un nom: le CSI Effect, du nom de la serie tele ( Les experts , en VF) qui cartonne en terme d’audience, et qui a bouleverse la facon de presenter le travail de la police a la television.

Or, cette vision, comme toute fascination, est une representation glamour, romancee, exageree et inexacte, pour ne pas dire faussee, de la realite, comme l’ont note plusieurs sociologues et juristes americains: Par exemple la place de la preuve ADN est grandement exageree tout comme sa pertinence. Phd Thesis. Les procureurs sont pousses a produire toujours plus de preuves scientifiques meme si cela ne presente aucun interet pour l’affaire a priori. Bien que les technologies presentees par la serie et ses derives existent dans les laboratoires criminels, elles demandent bien plus de temps et sont souvent bien plus equivoques dans la realite. Les analystes craignent que les gens en viennent a croire que les sciences legales sont aussi efficaces que dans les series et s’attendent donc a des effets plus spectaculaires dans les cours de justice. Higher Persuasive Essay. Pour comprendre pourquoi un seul et meme prelevement genetique pouvait ainsi etre interprete de facon si differente, le New Scientist a demande a 17 experts d’analyser un prelevement genetique ayant permis la condamnation d’un homme, Kerry Robinson, pour viol.

Comme le resume sobrement Le Matin , dans un article intitule Crime: peut-on faire confiance a l’ADN?, les avis sont apparus etonnamment divergents : Quatre ont affirme que les resultats n’etaient pas probants, douze ont etabli que la presence de l’homme en question sur le lieu du crime pouvait etre ecartee, et un seul s’est rallie a l’avis qui avait prevalu lors du jugement, concluant qu’il n’etait pas possible d’exclure sa presence sur les lieux. Dna Day Contest. Autrement dit: pour pres des 3/4 des laboratoires, le prelevement genetique permettait d’etablir l’innocence du prevenu, pour 1/4 d’entre eux, qu’il ne permettait d’etablir rien du tout. Higher Essay. Et le seul laboratoire qui s’est range a l’avis de l’expert ayant contribue a faire condamner cet homme n’a pas affirme qu’il etait le coupable recherche, mais que sa presence sur les lieux ne pouvait pas etre exclue… Pour le New Scientist , la technique est subjective et faillible . Magic Anthropology. Or, il suffit de l' opinion d’un seul individu pour finir en prison. Higher Essay. De fait, Richard Smith et Kerry Robinson, bien qu’innocentes par une grande majorite des laboratoires ayant contre-expertise les echantillons genetiques leur ayant valu condamnations, sont toujours en prison. Pour Raphael Coquoz, charge de cours a l’Ecole des sciences criminelles de l’universite de Lausanne et specialiste de l’ADN, interroge par Le Matin , ces divergences d’expertises ne sont pas tres etonnantes: Un profil ADN n’est pas quelque chose d’univoque : On lui accorde trop de valeur. Rules Writing. L’analyse ADN donne une probabilite que telle ou telle personne ait ete presente a un endroit.

Le concept de probabilite est parfois difficile a entendre quand on higher persuasive essay aimerait voir les choses en blanc ou en noir. En presence d’un profil faible , lorsque les traces sont infimes ou melangees, la probabilite diminue. Dna Day And Essay Contest. Lorsque le profil est de bonne qualite, les certitudes sont elevees, mais on higher persuasive essay tips n’est jamais sur a 100%. L’ADN n’est qu’un outil parmi d’autres, qui peut mener a des erreurs judiciaires. Writing Your In Latex. Il faut le reconnaitre. Higher. Tout depend en effet d’abord de la qualite de l’echantillon recueilli. Writing Your Phd Thesis In Latex. Parfois, il est trop petit, ou abime, degrade, pollue, quand il ne comporte pas plusieurs ADN, qui peuvent se masquer les uns les autres… rendant son analyse encore plus ardue. Persuasive. Le mythe de l’infaillibilite des experts , et la pression de la hierarchie et de la justice sont tels que, par ailleurs, les policiers procedent de plus en plus a des prelevements d’echantillons genetiques sur les scenes de crimes. Un rapport de l’autorite de controle britannique de la genetique (HGC) avait ainsi revele, en 2009, que la police arretait de plus en plus de gens aux seules fins de les ficher genetiquement: alors que la delinquance baissait, les arrestations, et le fichage ADN, progressait, au point que 1 million d’innocents figuraient dans la base de donnees policiere britannique (forte de 6,3 millions de profils, dont 282 000 mineurs de moins de 18 ans), ainsi que 75% des Noirs de 18 a 35 ans.

Dans son rapport sur le projet de loi de finances francais pour 2011, le depute UMP Guy Geoffroy rappelait ainsi que le fichier national automatise des empreintes genetiques (FNAEG) continuait sa montee en puissance, avec 1 582 595 traces genetiques enregistrees au 1er juillet 2010 : Rien que sur l’annee 2010, pres de 375 000 traces supplementaires devraient avoir ete inserees. Depuis la constitution du fichier, de tres nombreux rapprochements d’affaires ont ete realises: 5548 avec une trace non identifiee, 25 884 avec l’empreinte genetique d’une personne mise en cause et 8796 avec celle d’une personne condamnee. Essay Cumhail. Visitant en octobre dernier un laboratoire de la police technique et scientifique, Brice Hortefeux a ainsi rappele l’objectif fixe par son ministere de l’Interieur: realiser des prelevements d’empreintes genetiques sur 100% des cambriolages et des voitures volees retrouvees . Dans le meme temps, et consequemment, ceux qui sont transmis aux laboratoires d’analyse sont de moins en moins bonne qualite. Higher Essay. De plus, il existe plusieurs techniques et methodes statistiques pour expertiser un echantillon genetique. Dna Day Contest. Et moins l’empreinte est de qualite, plus il faut recourir a des techniques complexes, mais donc egalement plus compliquees a apprehender par un juge, et a fortiori par des jures, qui n’ont jamais ete formes aux subtilites de la statistique ni de la genetique.

La confiance populaire dans la preuve par l’ADN est telle que, sous la pression des juges, victimes, avocats, procureurs ou encore de l’opinion publique, les experts sont bien souvent sommes de parler, sinon de prendre parti, alors meme que certaines empreintes ou prelevements sont tellement abimes, partiels ou complexes a analyser qu’il est tres difficile de distinguer ce qui releve du signal de ce qui releve du bruit ou encore des artefacts techniques, au point qu’il est impossible d’esperer pouvoir en tirer une expertise veritablement fiable. Mais au lieu d’expliquer la methodologie statistique utilisee, afin de permettre a ceux qui vont juger de le faire un connaissance de cause, nombreux sont les experts et les laboratoires qui se contentent d’expliquer qu’ils pensent que l’ADN est (ou pas) celui du suspect, ou de la victime, entrainant juges et jures a condamner quelqu’un en accordant une confiance aveugle a une expertise qui, d’un point de vue scientifique ou statistique, pourrait pourtant etre contestee par un autre expert… Or, comme le rappelle le New Scientist dans son editorial, les jures americains estiment, a 95%, que la preuve par l’ADN est fiable, et un prevenu est plus susceptible d’etre condamne si le dossier comporte une preuve ADN que s’il n’en comporte pas… John Butler, responsable du groupe de genetique appliquee au National Institute of english persuasive tips, Standards and petraeus thesis, Technology (NIST), a ainsi examine 5000 echantillons ADN de 14 laboratoires differents, et decouvert que 34% d’entre-eux comportaient l’ADN de deux personnes, et 11% celui de trois voire quatre personnes differentes. Parallelement, une etude de Dan Krane, de l’universite de Wright, parue dans le Journal of english persuasive, Forensic Sciences , a demontre que 3% des echantillons comportant trois ADN differents pouvaient etre interpretes comme ne comportant que deux ADN seulement, et que 70% des echantillons de quatre ADN pouvaient, pareillement, etre analyses comme ne comportant que deux ou trois ADN differents. Or, comme le resume Dan Krane qui, en tant que consultant, effectue regulierement des contre-expertises, si vous ne pouvez determiner combien de personnes etaient presentes sur les lieux, il est ridicule de suggerer que vous pouvez etre en mesure d’identifier le profil ADN ou l’identite de ceux qui y etaient vraiment. Essay. Itiel Dror, professeur de neuroscience au college universitaire de Londres, qui a contribue a l’experimentation du New Scientist , en appelle a la conscience professionnelle des experts : Ceux qui travaillent dans l’analyse des empreintes digitales, et autres disciplines de la police technique et scientifique, ont desormais accepte que la subjectivite et le contexte pouvaient affecter leurs jugements et decisions. Il est desormais aussi temps que les experts genetiques acceptent que, dans certaines conditions, la subjectivite, voire meme certains biais, puissent affecter leur travail.

Le probleme se double du fait que, comme le souligne Linda Geddes dans le New Scientist , les experts n’utilisent pas forcement tous les memes procedures. Higher Essay Tips. Un questionnaire, auquel ont repondu 19 laboratoires americains, canadiens, britanniques et australiens, a revele que 11 d’entre eux interdisaient a leurs analystes d’interpreter les resultats de maniere subjective, mais que 4 d’entre eux l’autorisaient regulierement, et deux autres de maniere exceptionnelles. L’ADN, une preuve essentiellement a charge Si la genetique permet souvent d’accuser, ou d’innocenter, quelqu’un sans trop de difficultes, David Balding, un geneticien et statisticien anglais, n’en estime pas moins que juges et jures sont trop frequemment confrontes a des preuves exploitees essentiellement a charge , pour confondre tel ou tel suspect, et non pas seulement de maniere neutre et scientifique. Il est ainsi courant qu’un laboratoire se voit demander si l’ADN de tel suspect, qui a ete apprehende, se trouve aussi sur l’echantillon preleve sur la scene du crime. Anthropology. Ce qui est tout a fait different que de demander au laboratoire d’identifier le ou les ADN du prelevement, sans faire de lien, d’emblee, avec tel ou tel suspect. Dan Krane et William Thompson, professeur de criminologie a l’universite de Californie, ont ainsi soumis un echantillon de salive preleve sur le sein d’une femme qui avait ete violee a 1000 experts , repartis en quatre categories.

Trois hommes avaient ete suspectes, un seul fut condamne. English Persuasive Essay. Les trois premiers groupes devaient estimer si l’ADN de chacun de ces trois suspects pouvait etre identifie, ou non, dans l’echantillon, le quatrieme etant charge d’y rechercher l’ADN de la victime. Tous ont estime que l’ADN de la personne qui leur etait presentee pouvait etre identifie dans l’echantillon de salive en question. Dna Day. Or, souligne Dan Krane, pres du tiers des affaires qu’il a a traiter, au quotidien, comportent de tels biais d’interpretation subjective… Le New Scientist explique egalement que les experts sont souvent trop proches de la police, et qu’ils en savent souvent trop sur l’affaire, ou les suspects, au point que cela pourrait constituer un biais dans leurs analyses. English Tips. Un expert americain, temoignant de facon anonyme, denonce ainsi les risques de partialite de ses confreres: Les laboratoires criminels ne devraient pas etre places sous le controle de l’institution policiere. Rules Essay. Nous sommes des scientifiques, pas des policiers, ni des procureurs. Higher English Persuasive Tips. Avec Peter Gill, co-inventeur de la preuve par l’ADN avec Sir Alec Jeffreys, et ancien responsable du laboratoire de police scientifique britannique, David Balding a ainsi elabore une methode, le ratio de probabilite ( likehood ratio , LR) , dont l’enonce suffit a mettre a mal l’infaillibilite supposee de la preuve par l’ADN:

Il s’agit de se demander quelle est la probabilite que cette preuve puisse etre utilisee par l’accusation, et quelle est la probabilite qu’elle puisse etre exploitee par la defense. Essay Cumhail. Ensuite, vous faire un ratio des deux. English Persuasive Tips. Aussi surprenante qu’elle puisse paraitre pour un profane, cette methode a officiellement ete recommandee, l’an passe, par l’International Society for dna day Forensic Genetics (ISFG), et le Scientific Working Group on higher english persuasive essay tips DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), un laboratoire du FBI charge d’effectuer des recommandations aux laboratoires de police scientifique et technique americains, des lors que l’empreinte genetique s’avere complexe a expertiser. Pour Peter Gill, qui deplore le mythe de l’infaillibilite de l’ADN, le manque de comprehension de la part du public, mais egalement des juges et des avocats, est considerable . Petraeus Thesis. Ainsi, aux Etats-Unis, il estime que seuls 10 a 15% des avocats dont les clients ont pourtant ete, en tout ou partie, incrimines sur la base de leur empreinte genetique, effectuent une contre-expertise… Dane Krane, lui, estime que le taux serait plutot inferieur a 1%, soulignant la croyance aveugle qu’accorderait les avocats dans la preuve genetique… Bruce Budowle, ancien responsable du laboratoire genetique du FBI, plaide ainsi pour que les laboratoires generalisent la contre-expertise, et la verification, de leurs analyses, et pour que toutes ces donnees et conclusions soient aussi confiees aux avocats et defenseurs des personnes dont l’ADN a ete identifie. 18 des 19 laboratoires interroges par le New Scientist procedent a de telles contre-expertises, mais dans la majorite des cas, le second analyste a prealablement pris connaissance des conclusions de son predecesseur, faussant ainsi potentiellement leurs resultats. Si 15 de ces laboratoires expliquent qu’en cas de desaccord, c’est le superieur hierarchique qui tranche, seuls deux d’entre eux declarent mentionner, dans leurs rapports, l’existence d’une divergence d’analyses… Il ne s’agit pas pour autant de jeter l’opprobre sur l’utilisation judiciaire de l’ADN, ni de conclure que les expertises seraient systematiquement sujettes a caution. Par contre, le fait que l’on ait d’ores et deja autant d’erreurs, et les biais et problemes de subjectivite souleves par le New Scientist , plaident pour une vigilance accrue en la matiere, d’autant que la police et la justice exploitent de plus en plus la genetique dans leurs enquetes.

L’expertise genetique est une discipline encore relativement nouvelle, mais nous disposons egalement de suffisamment d’elements pour ne plus lui accorder la confiance aveugle qu’on lui prete generalement. Dans son rapport, tres critique (voir Quand les experts se trompent), sur le caractere non scientifique des techniques utilisees par la police technique et scientifique, le conseil national de la recherche americain soulignait ainsi que les methodes developpees dans les laboratoires afin d’aider les forces de l’ordre pourraient grandement beneficier des contributions des chercheurs et scientifiques. Et c’est precisement pour renforcer la confiance que l’on peut accorder au systeme judiciaire, et a la facon qu’ont les experts d’exploiter traces et identifiants genetiques, que Dan Krane a publie dans la revue Science , en decembre 2009, un appel cosigne par 40 autres scientifiques et professeurs de droit, intitule Time for higher english persuasive essay tips DNA disclosure (.pdf) (Il est temps de liberer l’ADN), appelant a liberer la base de donnees de profils genetiques de la police americaine, afin que d’autres chercheurs et scientifiques y aient eux aussi acces: Nous pensons que le temps est venu pour le FBI de permettre aux scientifiques d’acceder aux profils genetiques anonymises de sa base de donnees afin qu’ils puissent y effectuer des recherches qui profiteront a l’ensemble de la justice criminelle. Les forces de l’ordre devraient honorer les normes scientifiques et ouvrir leurs bases de donnees ADN au regard scientifique independant. Magic Essay Anthropology. Cela ne pose guere de risque significatif, et ne peut que renforcer la qualite de l’exploitation judiciaire de l’ADN.

Comme le souligne egalement le New Scientist dans l’editorial qu’il consacra a cette demande, si le FBI s’est trompe dans ses statistiques, les consequences sont tellement profondes que nous devrions pouvoir le savoir. Higher English Persuasive Essay. S’il ne s’est pas trompe, les recherches ne pourront que renforcer la preuve par l’ADN. Essay Cumhail. Dans les deux cas, la justice en sortira gagnante . English Essay. Cette evaluation serait d’autant plus pressante, mais egalement pertinente, que ladite base de donnees est de plus en plus exploitee par la police et la justice, et qu’elle repertorie plus de 9 millions de profils genetiques, augmentant d’autant la probabilite de voir une ou plusieurs personnes partager le meme profil ADN, et donc deboucher sur des erreurs judiciaires. Dna Day And Essay. Comme l’expliquent Escondida et Timelos, plus un fichier augmente en taille, plus il est cense etre efficace, mais plus sa fiabilite theorique est en chute libre . Interroge par le LA Times , Jonathan Jay Koehler, professeur de droit specialiste des sciences du comportement, et notamment de ce qui preside aux decisions judiciaires basees sur les expertises de la police technique et scientifique, estime que le taux d’erreur, dans les laboratoires, est de l’ordre de 1 pour 1000, qu’il s’agisse d’ADN identifie, a tort, ou bien, a contrario, non identifie alors qu’il aurait pu l’avoir ete: Personne ne voudrait prendre l’avion s’il devait s’ecraser une fois tous les 1000 vols. English Essay. William Thompson, considere comme l’un des meilleurs specialistes des erreurs en matiere de genetique criminelle, se rappelle que lors de la creation des premieres bases de donnees d’ADN, on petraeus thesis estimait que les innocents n’avaient rien a craindre, et qu’ils ne devaient donc pas avoir peur d’etre fiches. Mais aujourd’hui, quand on persuasive essay tips regarde la somme d’erreurs repertoriees de par le monde – et nous ne connaissons que la partie emergee de l’iceberg -, le probleme se pose vraiment de savoir combien de personnes nous voulons ainsi ficher. Your. Et je n’aimerais certainement pas etre l’une d’entre elles. Higher English Essay Tips. 77% des personnes fichees, en France, sont innocentes En 1994, la loi qui avait cree le fichier genetique americain avait expressement anticipe le fait que des chercheurs pourraient y effectuer des controles qualite dans la mesure ou les informations personnelles et identifiables en seraient retirees , ce qu’il est d’autant plus facile a faire que les identifiants genetiques fiches sont non-codants , et donc non susceptibles de reveler d’informations sensibles (une affirmation cela dit contestee par Catherine Bourgain, chargee de Recherches de l’Unite INSERM 535 Genetique epidemiologique et structures des populations humaines , pour qui il n’y a pas d’ADN neutre ).

Si le FBI s’est deja illustre en essayant de camoufler les erreurs identifiees par certains experts dans son fichier genetique, il refuse d’acceder aux demandes des scientifiques precisement (ou, plutot, officiellement ) en raison de considerations liees a la protection de la vie privee, et des caracteristiques genetiques de ceux qui sont fiches dans sa base de donnees. Ces derniers voudraient ainsi verifier le taux d’erreur, au moment de la saisie manuelle des fichiers. Essay Cumhail. Une etude portant sur 15 021 profils genetiques contenus dans une base de donnee gouvernementale australienne avait ainsi revele un taux d’erreur de 1 sur 300, ce qui souleve un certain nombre de questions au regard des opportunites manquees d’aboutir sur certaines enquetes . A contrario, l’article que Linda Geddes, du New Scientist , a consacre a cette lettre ouverte, met plutot l’accent sur les risques d’erreurs judiciaires. English Essay Tips. Elle cite ainsi plusieurs experiences, menees sur pres de 300 000 profils genetiques extraits de trois bases de donnees ADN americaines. Rules. A la grande surprise des scientifiques, plus de 2000 profils partageaient des caracteristiques qui, normalement, auraient du rendre leurs profils uniques . Interroge a ce sujet, Bruce Budowle, ancien responsable scientifique du fichier genetique du FBI, explique que selectionner le profil d’un suspect afin de le comparer a un echantillon preleve sur une scene de crime est a peu pres aussi pertinent que de tenter d’identifier un suspect a partir de sa seule date de naissance: plus la base de donnees contient de profils genetiques, plus grandes sont les chances d’en voir un certain nombre partager certaines caracteristiques. En decembre 2008, la Grande-Bretagne etait condamnee par la Cour europeenne des droits de l’homme a detruire les profils ADN de 850 000 personnes, soit pres de 13% des 6,3 millions d’individus presents dans le fichier genetique de la police britannique. Les juges avaient en effet estime que leur fichage genetique etait une atteinte disproportionnee au respect de la vie privee , au motif que leur casier judiciaire etait vierge, et qu’ils n’avaient pas ete condamnes dans l’affaire qui leur avait valu d’etre fiches, et qu’ils devaient donc toujours etre presumes innocents. Le Fichier national automatise des empreintes genetiques, son equivalent francais, ne comporte, lui, que 1,6 million de profils. English. Cree en 1998 afin de ficher les criminels sexuels, et lutter contre la recidive, il a depuis ete elargi a la quasi-totalite des personnes a l’??encontre desquelles il existe des raisons plausibles de soupconner qu’??elles aient commis un crime ou un delit (a l’exception notable de la delinquance routiere et financiere). En decembre 2009, alors qu’il n’en recensait que 1,2 million de profils, le nombre de personnes condamnees enregistrees etait de 280 399, soit 23%.

Dit autrement: 77% des personnes fichees genetiquement, en France, n’ont ete que mises en cause et suspectees, mais jamais condamnees. Petraeus Thesis. Elles sont donc toujours presumes innocentes … Comme le soulignait l’an passe Matthieu Bonduelle, secretaire general du Syndicat de la magistrature, au sujet du FNAEG, “ Il faut reconnaitre qu’il permet de resoudre des affaires, mais on higher english persuasive tips est maintenant dans une logique d’alimentation du fichier. Writing Phd Thesis In Latex. Personne ne prone le fichage generalise, mais, de fait, on higher english persuasive essay tips est en train de l’effectuer “ (voir Objectif: ficher l’ADN de toute la population). Condamnes par le code: l’immunite logicielle en question. Les algorithmes sont-ils une nouvelle forme de bureaucratie? Les donnees suffisent-elles pour piloter la ville?

Ou en est le Nudge (1/3)? Tout est-il nudgable ? Bodyware: pour une augmentation ordinaire. Les correlations en leurs limites. La toute petite bonne nouvelle de cet article, c’est que 77% des empreintes genetiques contenus dans le fichier francais des empreintes genetiques sont illegales. Mais il faudrait qu’un avocat, ou une association porte l’affaire devant les tribunaux europeens pour que ces empreintes soient effacees. Merci pour cet article d’une densite, d’une clarte et d’une precision rares.

Je suis epoustouflee par la qualite de ce que je viens de lire. Petraeus Thesis. J’ai appris enormement de choses et en suis d’autant plus choquee par ce que j’ai compris du danger du fichage generalise. tres bel article! Merci beaucoup pour toutes ces informations et mises en lumiere.

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