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Archaeologists Resume Work at Contentious Worksite of Jerusalem Museum. No one involved in the digs would comment on any archaeological findings since the resumption of the excavations, which are taking place in the capital's Mamilla neighborhood. Archaeologists have resumed excavating the Jerusalem site where the Museum of Tolerance is to go up, amid controversy surrounding the exhumation of skeletons in what had been a Muslim cemetery for nearly 1,000 years. Parts Of A Essay. In addition to fielding objections to the museum site, the Simon Wiesenthal Center, which is sponsoring and financing the project, also has to essayist steele, contend with the what are the parts recent resignation of the two architects who planned the museum. But for all the troubles, construction of the money museum is scheduled to are the parts, begin in the next few weeks. Essay. The site of the Museum of Tolerance in Jerusalem. Olivier Fitousii. No one involved in what of a the digs would comment on any archaeological findings since the trigger essay resumption of the excavations, which are taking place in the capital's Mamilla neighborhood. But the what essay first archaeologist to work at the site said there must be more skeletons there.
There are definitely skeletons there, said Gideon Sulimani, who also used to head the Israel Antiquities Authority's Jerusalem district. They're digging at the edge of the excavation I conducted, and the graves continue in the direction in which they're currently digging. Subjects. The Los Angeles-based Wiesenthal Center said it would receive a summary of the archaeological findings after the excavation was completed. What Three Parts Essay. The work is being conducted in accordance with the law, the center said in a statement, adding: As far as we know, the work will be completed very shortly. Architects Bracha and trigger point essay Michael Chyutin recently quit working on the museum over differences with the Simon Wiesenthal Center. Chyutin Architects was hired to design the museum about a year ago, after the resignation of world-renowned architect Frank Gehry.
Chyutin Architects has signed a contract leaving the Wiesenthal Center with the architectural copyright for are the of a essay, the plan. Academic For Research. More than 1,000 skeletons were expected to be exhumed during the three parts excavation, which has the approval of the papers Israel Antiquities Authority. Although the Mamilla site served as the three of a primary Muslim cemetery in Jerusalem for centuries, it was being used as a parking lot for the past few decades. For a list of Haaretz newsletters, click here. Send me email alerts for new articles by Nir Hasson. Want to enjoy 'Zen' reading - with no ads and just the article? Subscribe today. Sign in to join the conversation. Your comment was successfully submitted and will be published in accordance with site policy. If you would like to academic subjects for research, be notified when your comment is published, please fill in your email address in the form below. Please try again later.
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ocr rs coursework Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of three parts of a change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the same. The Blair decade.
Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of academic for research papers a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in parts preparation. Organisation of this chapter. Brown and Balls. Cameron and Gove. 2008 Education and Skills Act.
2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act. 2009 White Paper. 2009 Children, Schools and bens homework Families Bill. 2010 Children, Schools and what are the three parts of a essay Families Act. Other Acts relating to children and young people. 2007 Further Education and Training Act. 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. 2010 Child Poverty Act.
IRPC interim report. CPR curriculum report. CSFC National Curriculum report. IRPC final report. CPR final report. Nuffield 14-19 Review. Building Schools for the Future. Academies and essayist steele trust schools. Covert selection by faith schools. The National Challenge.
The inspection regime. 2008 NUT Conference. Gove's view of education. Education in England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. What Parts. You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the essayist steele, author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece. If you do so, please acknowledge it thus:
Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history www.educationengland.org.uk/history. In accordance with the what essay, conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to my family reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of what are the three parts of a which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of money essay extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in parts the text, the number after the colon is miss essay, always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is available online. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and are the three parts the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Chapter 11 : 2007-2010.
Brown and Balls: mixed messages. The new administration. Brown and Balls. Tony Blair was replaced as prime minister by former chancellor of the exchequer Gordon Brown ( pictured ). His new administration immediately announced that the essay, education department would be split in three parts of a two: the Department for Children, Schools and save or spend essay Families (DCSF) with Ed Balls as secretary of are the parts of a essay state, and the Department of Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) under John Denham. (Balls's official title was 'Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families', though he was usually referred to as 'the children's secretary'). There was some logic to this division. DCSF brought together all policy relating to children and young people: in addition to overseeing schools, it shared youth justice with the Ministry of america essay Justice, child poverty with the Treasury and the Department for what are the three parts of a essay, Work and about my family Pensions, children's health with the Department of Health, and youth sport with the Department for Culture. It also took the 'respect' agenda from the Home Office. DIUS took science and innovation from the Department for Trade and Industry and would be responsible for the development, funding and performance of higher education, both teaching and what are the three of a essay research; together with adult learning, including Train to Gain and basic skills.
It would oversee the Ј4bn adult portion of the Learning and Skills Council budget. Bens Homework. One of its main aims was the improvement of graduate skills. But there were complications in the arrangement. Are The Parts Of A Essay. DCSF would set education policy for students up to the age of 19, but work with DIUS on 14-19 reforms. School pupils in the 14 to 19 age group and sixth form college students would come under DCSF, but general further education college students and essay apprentices aged 16 to 19 were the three parts essay, responsibility of for research DIUS, though they would be funded via local education authorities. The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) thus had half its budget removed, putting its future in doubt ( The Guardian 3 July 2007). In the event, DIUS only are the three essay lasted two years. In June 2009 it was abolished and save money or spend money essay its responsibilities subsumed into a new Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), led by Lord (Peter) Mandelson. In his inaugural statement, the what are the, new children's secretary Ed Balls ( pictured ) said he would introduce legislation to raise the school leaving age to essayist steele 18, improve school discipline, remove barriers to further expansion of the academies programme, and give teachers more scope to decide when pupils should be tested.
He announced that Leicester University chancellor Sir Peter Williams, chair of the Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education, would conduct a review of what are the parts maths teaching in primary schools. An extra Ј265m over the next three years would be spent ensuring that children from disadvantaged backgrounds could benefit from at least two hours a week of out-of-hours group activities in term time. Secondary teachers would be given an extra training day a year, and a scheme to encourage graduates to teach in inner-city schools would be expanded beyond London. About. He also promised a ten-year youth strategy and a plan to tackle teenage pregnancy. A children's plan for the UK would be prepared and consulted on ( The Guardian 11 July 2007). In October 2007 the new chancellor of the exchequer Alistair Darling announced the three-year settlement for education. A 2.8 per cent real terms annual increase to Ј74bn in 2010 was higher than other departments but lower than in previous years.
Teachers' leaders pointed out that the three parts of a essay, budget for each pupil would rise from Ј5,500 in essays about 2007-8 to Ј6,600 in 2010-11 but that this was still far short of the cost of a private school education. Darling also promised Ј250m to fund the Children's Plan scheme to make sure children arrived at school ready to learn and what are the three parts of a able to benefit from personalised support ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). In his first major speech on essayist steele education, Gordon Brown told an audience of educationists at Greenwich University that 'failing' schools would have five years to improve their pupils' GCSE results or they would face take-over or closure. He set out wide-ranging plans to expand childcare, eradicate illiteracy and introduce more work-based apprenticeships to persuade more 16 year olds to stay on in education. 'This is a determined and are the three essay systematic agenda to end failure', he said. 'We will see it through. Bens Homework. We will not flinch from the of a, task' ( The Guardian 1 November 2007). As we saw in the previous chapter, Lord (Andrew) Adonis had wielded enormous influence over essayist steele, education policy in what are the three parts of a essay the Blair administration.
He kept his post as schools minister when Gordon Brown took over, but his influence waned and in October 2008 he was moved from education to the Department of Transport. Cameron and Gove. Meanwhile, Conservative party leader David Cameron ( pictured ) announced that the Tories would 'revolutionise' education by supporting the formation of parent-run co-operative schools paid for by local authorities. He said he was setting up a 'Conservative Co-operative Movement' based on the ideals of the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, the academic papers, world's first successful co-operative. The National Union of Teachers (NUT) warned that the proposals would increase social segregation, and Co-operative Party general secretary Peter Hunt said: 'Co-operative Party policies are . rooted in Labour philosophy. If David Cameron wishes to join us, he will first have to defect to the Labour party' ( The Guardian 9 November 2007). The new shadow education secretary was Michael Gove ( pictured ). At a conference at Brighton College in May 2008, Gove told teachers that a Conservative government would reinstate traditional styles of fact-based lessons. Generations of what three parts children had been let down by so-called progressive education policies which had taught skills and 'empathy' instead of bodies of knowledge, he said.
He condemned the 'pupil-centred learning' theories which had gained support in the 1960s for 'dethroning' the teacher: It is an approach to education that has been called progressive, but in fact is trigger, anything but. What Are The Parts Of A Essay. It privileges temporary relevance over a permanent body of knowledge which should be passed on from generation to generation . We need to tackle this misplaced ideology wherever it occurs. NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower said: 'Gove's attack on child-centred learning is an for research papers absurd caricature of what parts of a reality . If there has been a dethroning of teachers, it has been because successive politicians have decided that they know better than teachers about how children learn' ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The Children's Plan. In December 2007 the government published its Children's Plan Building brighter futures . This important and ambitious document was based on widespread consultation involving children, young people, parents, teachers and policy makers, and was designed to underpin and inform all future government policy relating to children, their families and schools. It aimed to eradicate child poverty and reduce illiteracy and antisocial behaviour by 2020. In his Foreword, Ed Balls said he wanted to make Britain 'the best place in academic papers the world for our children and young people to grow up'. (DCSF 2007:3)
The plan was based on five principles: government does not bring up children - parents do - so government needs to do more to back parents and families; all children have the potential to succeed and should go as far as their talents can take them; children and are the parts young people need to bens homework enjoy their childhood as well as grow up prepared for adult life; services need to be shaped by what are the essay and responsive to children, young people and families, not designed around professional boundaries; and it is always better to prevent failure than tackle a crisis later. Pageant Essay. (DCSF 2007:5-6) It set ten goals to be achieved by 2020: enhance children and young people's well-being, particularly at key transition points in their lives; every child ready for essay, success in school, with at essayist steele least 90 per cent developing well across all areas of the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile by age 5; every child ready for secondary school, with at least 90 per cent achieving at or above the expected level in both English and what are the parts essay mathematics by age 11; every young person with the skills for adult life and further study, with at essayist steele least 90 per three of a essay cent achieving the equivalent of five higher level GCSEs by simple essays about my family age 19; and at least 70 per cent achieving the equivalent of two A levels by age 19; parents satisfied with the information and support they receive; all young people participating in what are the three parts essay positive activities to develop personal and social skills, promote well-being and reduce behaviour that puts them at risk; employers satisfied with young people's readiness for work; child health improved, with the simple about, proportion of what parts obese and overweight children reduced to 2000 levels; child poverty halved by 2010 and eradicated by 2020; and significantly reduce by 2020 the number of academic subjects for research papers young offenders receiving a conviction, reprimand, or final warning for a recordable offence for parts, the first time, with a goal to be set in the Youth Crime Action Plan. (DCSF 2007:14) The plan attempted to address a series of save or spend highly critical reports on British childhood by Unicef and others, and to demonstrate evidence of Gordon Brown's administration's much talked-of 'vision'. There would be new playgrounds and youth centres, personal tutors and one-to-one classes to give struggling pupils a chance to catch up and their parents a contact at school. There would be radical reform of the curriculum and testing regimes, and a mandatory master's-level qualification for what, all new teachers. All new schools would be carbon-neutral by 2016 and there would be more 20mph speed limit zones near schools. A dozen strategy reviews - on areas including drugs and alcohol, sex education, bullying and the commercialisation of childhood - would determine how the targets were to point essay be met. Children's campaigners welcomed the plan. Children's Society chief executive Bob Reitemeier said: 'The responsibility for three parts of a essay, childhood rests with us all and essayist steele we are encouraged that the what, children's plan looks beyond education to address fundamental areas such as parents and play.'
Child Poverty Action Group chief executive Kate Green commented: 'The common thread that will transform the plan's patchwork of measures into a successful whole is an end to child poverty . It is now up to the Treasury to make sure that . the save money money, child poverty target is parts of a, met so that the children's plan is not undermined.' Teachers were generally supportive of the save money essay, plan, though some were concerned at what essay the scale of the reforms which schools were being asked to lead. John Dunford, general secretary of the Association of School and College Leaders (ASCL), said the plan would make 'massive demands on essays schools' which would need the are the three essay, support of the full range of public services. 'If schools are to be placed at the core of social reform for bens homework, children, as the breadth of the children's plan suggests, this places tremendous expectations on schools and their leaders', he said ( The Guardian 12 December 2007). Download The Children's Plan (pdf text 640kb). There were three major education acts in three of a this period: 2008 Education and Skills Act; 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act; 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act (much reduced in scope because of the impending general election). The Education and Skills Bill was jointly sponsored by DCSF and DIUS. The Act (26 November 2008): raised the education leaving age to 18. Young people would be required to essay participate in education or training until their 18th birthday through: - full-time education or training, including school, college and home education; - work-based learning, such as an Apprenticeship; or. - part-time education or training, if they were employed, self-employed or volunteering more than 20 hours a week; rationalised the regulation and monitoring regime for independent schools and non-maintained special schools; improved careers education for 11 to 16 year olds; transferred responsibility for delivering the 'Connexions' service (which offered a wide range of support to young people) to local authorities; empowered local authorities to are the parts arrange learning difficulty assessments in a person's final year of compulsory education and up to the age of 25 for trigger, any young person who would benefit from what of a one; placed a duty on the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) to ensure the free provision of basic skills and miss america essay first full level 2 qualification courses; placed a duty on the LSC to ensure that 19 to what 25 year olds who were undertaking their first full level 3 qualification did not have to pay tuition fees; required school governing bodies to save money or spend money invite and consider the are the parts essay, views of or spend pupils on policy matters which affected them; gave young people the what are the parts of a essay, right to express a school preference for sixth-form education and to money appeal against any decision made; required local authorities to produce annual reports on school admission arrangements in their area; and made minor changes to the legislative regime governing the National Curriculum so that, from 2009, Key Stage 3 tests would no longer be compulsory. Download the what three, Education and Skills Act 2008 (pdf text 672kb). 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act.
This Act (12 November 2009): created a statutory framework for apprenticeships and money a right to an apprenticeship for suitably qualified 16-18 year olds; gave employees the right to request time off for training, and required employers to consider such requests seriously; abolished the Learning and what three Skills Council; transferred responsibility for save money, funding education and training for 16-18 year olds to local authorities; made provisions with respect to the education of offenders; created the Young Person's Learning Agency, the Skills Funding Agency, the Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), and a new agency to carry out the non-regulatory functions currently performed by are the three parts essay the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority; strengthened the pageant essay, accountability of are the of a essay children's services; amended intervention powers in respect of schools which were causing concern; established a new parental complaints service; changed the school inspection arrangements; created a new negotiating body for support staff pay and conditions; and made provisions in simple about respect of pupil and student behaviour. The bill gave Ed Balls and what are the three parts essay John Denham 153 new powers. 'Is this the most centralising education bill in history?' asked Warwick Mansell. He noted that under the academic subjects for research, 1944 Education Act the minister of education had had just three central duties: 'to promote the education of the people of England and Wales'; 'to promote the progressive development of schools and colleges'; and 'to secure that local authorities execute the of a essay, national policy for providing a very comprehensive educational service'. But in the last twenty years, he argued, there had been 'a steady growth in the powers of essayist steele central government, with the introduction of the national curriculum, national teaching strategies, and the targets and league table regime, all overseen and directed by ministers and civil servants' (Mansell 2009a). Barry Sheerman, Labour chair of the Commons children, schools and families committee, agreed. 'There does seem to be a general feeling out there, in the evidence the what essay, committee has received on several inquiries, of point essay people desiring a swing back towards local autonomy', he said. 'Ministers need to understand this before they continue plodding on in the opposite direction.' And John Fowler, a consultant for the Local Government Information Unit, added 'If the parts, government was really serious about devolving power, it would just scrap this bill and save money or spend start again.
I cannot see that happening.' It didn't. 2009 White Paper: Your child, your schools, our future. Before the Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act had even received the Royal Assent, the government published its next education white paper, in June 2009. Your child, your schools, our future was to form the basis for the 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill (which was intended to are the essay become the 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act, though most of save it would be lost in the run-up to the general election). The white paper signalled the what are the three, abandonment of what many had seen as Blair's most significant education reform - the National Strategies for literacy and numeracy. It also removed central government prescription of teaching methods and dramatically cut the use of the private consultants employed to improve schools. Schools would have more freedom and would be enabled to establish networks of academic subjects papers school-to-school support to help drive up standards in a 'new era of localism'. Parents of children who regularly behaved badly in three class could face court-imposed parenting orders. The white paper's key points were: a pupil guarantee setting out new entitlements to essay personalised support for every child, matched by a parent guarantee for every parent; all schools to are the three parts of a essay have good behaviour, strong discipline, order and safety; all pupils to academic subjects for research be taught in what three parts of a a way that meets their needs; all pupils to have opportunities to take part in sport and cultural activities; all schools to promote their pupils' health and well-being; schools to work in point essay partnership with other schools and with wider children's services; local consortia to offer a choice of every one of the new diplomas to 14-19 year-olds; partnerships of primary schools to share specialist teaching; develop a system for accrediting good education providers who wish to run groups of are the of a schools; more academies and trust schools; develop a system for accrediting good education providers to about my family run groups of schools; strong accountability and rapid intervention when needed to parts further improve schools; expand the role of 'School Improvement Partners' (SIPs); develop a new School Report Card (SRC); give schools greater flexibility and encourage greater innovation; improve the relationship between central government, local authorities and schools; new Masters degree in Teaching and Learning; better development of support staff; and governing bodies' fundamental duties to children, young people and essays the wider community to be enshrined in law.
Download the are the parts of a, White Paper Your child, your schools, our future (pdf text 2.2mb). 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill. These proposals formed the basis of the Children, Schools and Families Bill. One of the miss pageant, bill's provisions, first announced by ministers in October 2008, was that sex education from the age of of a five would be made a compulsory part of the national curriculum in trigger primary and secondary schools. Schools would not be allowed to opt out, and what three parts of a essay faith schools would be given guidance on how to trigger provide sex and relationship education - to include contraception, abortion and homosexuality - alongside conflicting religious beliefs ( The Guardian 24 October 2008). But religious groups objected, and the government amended the new regulations, which were due to come into are the three, effect in September 2011. While all schools would still be required to teach sex education, it now said that parents could withdraw children under 15 from the lessons, which would only be compulsory for 15 and 16 year olds ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). This still wasn't enough for the Catholic Education Service, which lobbied the government to make further amendments to the Bill. The government caved in and agreed that sex and relationships education (SRE) could now 'reflect a school's religious character'. Campaigners said the change would allow faith schools to discourage the use of contraception and teach that homosexuality was wrong.
The Accord Coalition (a newly-formed group of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations campaigning to stop state-funded schools from discriminating against students and teachers on essayist steele the grounds of religion) accused Balls of what implicitly condoning homophobia in schools and or spend undermining his own attempts to tackle homophobic bullying. Chair of Accord Rabbi Dr Jonathan Romain said: It is astonishing that the government plans to parts of a essay deny young people of their right to accurate, balanced SRE . Essayist Steele. Children at faith schools have just as much right to information that could help them avoid an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) A DCSF spokesman dismissed the complaints: All maintained schools will be required to what three parts of a teach full programmes of bens homework study in line with the principles outlined in the bill, including promoting equality and encouraging acceptance of diversity. Schools with a religious character will be free to express their faith and reflect the ethos of their school, but what they cannot do is suggest that their views are the only ones. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) In other words, a Catholic school would be required to teach children the facts about contraception, but would be allowed to try to persuade them that its use was immoral. Balls insisted the amendment would not 'water down' the bill: it would still require state schools to teach pupils about the importance of stable relationships, including civil partnerships, and it would forbid the promotion of homophobia. Liberal Democrat schools spokesman David Laws accused ministers of being in a 'terrific muddle' over the issue and said the amendment 'completely undermines the objectives of what three parts of a this part of the bill' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). Despite the miss america essay, concerns, the amendment was passed by 268 votes to 177 without debate (because of are the parts of a essay a lack of time at the report stage). Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL) education policy adviser Alison Ryan said: 'We believe this amendment is unhelpful and miss unnecessary because it upsets the balance of the bill by placing the religious character of the school above the promotion of what parts of a equality and tolerance of diversity.' National Secular Society executive director Keith Porteous Wood commented: 'The government have once more bowed to pressure from the Catholic church, betraying the children in faith schools who have a right to objective and miss america pageant essay balanced sex education' ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). And an editorial in The Guardian commented: This looks like a case of the government being led away from the what three essay, path of about my family righteousness by ecclesiastical lobbying, which has happened several times before. There was, for instance, the climbdown over the plan to force faith schools to what take some children from outside their own flock.
There was also section 37 of the 2008 Education Act, which undercut Labour's solid record on discrimination at work by allowing schools to for research papers hand-pick staff on the basis of their creed. Many devout people - and many believers in three parts essay faith schools - are represented by the Accord Coalition, which argues that no state-funded institution should be exempted from norms that all other public bodies must follow. Unless all religious schools are required to essayist steele see the light, the contradictions will become unsustainable. The recurring pattern of what are the three parts essay church lobbying and Whitehall climbdowns is testing society's faith in church schools as being a force for good. ( The Guardian 24 February 2010) 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. In the event, with the miss, general election just a month away, all the what essay, sex education provisions (and many others) were lost from the subjects, Children, Schools and Families Act (8 April 2010). Download the Children, Schools and Families Act 2010 (pdf text 124kb).
Other Acts relating to what essay children and about my family young people. In addition to the three major education acts summarised above, there were three other acts relating to children and young people during this period: 2007 Further Education and are the three parts Training Act. The Further Education and Training Act (23 October 2007) made provisions about: the simple about my family, Learning and Skills Council for England; institutions within the further education sector; industrial training levies; the formation of, and what three investment in, companies and pageant charitable incorporated organisations by what three higher education corporations; and the making of Welsh Assembly Measures in relation to the field of education. Bens Homework. Download the Further Education and Training Act 2007 (pdf text 196kb). 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. The Children and Young Persons Act (13 November 2008) made provisions about: the delivery of local authority social work services for three parts, children and young persons; the functions of local authorities and others in relation to children and young persons; the enforcement of care standards in money or spend money relation to certain establishments or agencies connected with children; and are the of a the independent review of determinations relating to adoption. Download the Children and Young Persons Act 2008 (pdf text 228kb). 2010 Child Poverty Act. The Child Poverty Act (25 March 2010): set targets relating to the eradication of child poverty; and made other provisions about money or spend money essay child poverty.
Download the Child Poverty Act 2010 (pdf text 140kb). Three major reviews of the curriculum were undertaken in what are the this period: the or spend, government's 'Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum' (IRPC), conducted by are the parts of a Sir Jim Rose, published its interim report in December 2008 and its final report in April 2009; the trigger, Cambridge Primary Review, which had begun work in 2006, published Towards a new primary curriculum in what are the three essay February 2009 and its final report Children, their World, their Education in 2010; the House of miss america pageant Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee (CSFC) published its report on the National Curriculum in April 2009. Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum. As the Cambridge Primary Review was getting into its stride, Ed Balls threw a spanner into the works. On 9 January 2008 he wrote to Sir Jim Rose inviting him to conduct 'an independent review of the primary curriculum' with a view to three parts making 'final recommendations to for research papers the Secretary of State by March 2009 so that the new primary curriculum can be introduced from September 2011'. The government's justification for this new review of primary education was presumably that it had already commissioned a review of the secondary curriculum and had introduced an early years 'foundation stage'. As Rose put it, you couldn't 'just extend one backwards, the other forwards, tie a knot in the middle and say that's primary education' (Wilby 2008).
However, given that the Cambridge Review - the three parts of a essay, biggest investigation of primary education since Plowden - was already under way, many felt that the Rose review was designed as a spoiler. The government was fed up with adverse headlines like 'Poor performance linked to substandard classrooms', 'Government policy has created impersonalised education', and 'Study reveals stressed out 7 to 11 year olds' (Wilby 2008). It was also concerned that the save money or spend money, Cambridge Review would condemn England's testing regime - the hated SATs. So it created the IRPC as a diversion, 'with a suspiciously similar email address, a claim that it too is independent, and an identical deadline for its final report of what of a spring 2009' (Wilby 2008). There were other concerns about the IRPC. One was that the Qualifications and Curriculum Agency (QCA) was required to essayist steele produce draft programmes of study based on the report's recommendations during the consultation period, effectively rendering redundant most of the responses. Are The Essay. Another was that the views of academic for research representatives of local authorities and teachers' professional associations who attended meetings during the are the three of a essay, 'informal' consultations were apparently excluded. A third concern was that consideration of SATs tests was 'specifically excluded from Rose's remit' (Wilby 2008). Introducing the IRPC's interim report on save money 8 December 2008, Rose urged ministers to review the arrangements for SATs (already abolished in all parts of the UK except England). 'I'm ruled out of making recommendations about testing', he told Polly Curtis. 'That's not to say every school doesn't ask about testing. It's the what are the parts of a essay, elephant in the room' ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). IRPC Interim Report.
The report's main recommendations were: there should be a smoother transition between early years and primary education, and between primary and secondary education; subjects should be combined with cross-curricular study; teachers should have more flexibility within a richer curriculum; there should be more and better computer education; the value of play to children's learning and development should be made explicit in any revisions to bens homework the primary curriculum; primary schools should focus on are the three of a essay teaching only one or two foreign languages; children should acquire a range of personal, social and emotional qualities essential to essayist steele their health, well-being and what of a essay life as a responsible citizen in the 21st century; and essayist steele summer-born children should start primary school in the September after their fourth birthday, with some children starting part-time. The report proposed that the primary curriculum should comprise six 'areas of learning': understanding English, communication and languages; mathematical understanding; scientific and technological understanding; human, social and environmental understanding; understanding physical health and are the three essay well-being; and understanding the arts and design. The Review found overwhelming support for the National Curriculum and point much good practice in schools. It recommended that the curriculum should be reviewed periodically but stressed that schools and teachers needed stability so as to be able to plan effectively. The Cambridge Primary Review - Towards a new primary curriculum. In order to contribute to the final IRPC report, the Cambridge Review brought forward publication of its material on the curriculum. Towards a New Primary Curriculum was published on 20 February 2009 in two parts: Past and Present and The Future . Three Parts Essay. Its authors commented: Some readers may become impatient with the history, the bens homework, account of witnesses' concerns and our apparent preoccupation with the problematic. For them, solutions are more important. They are of course welcome to essay turn straight to Part 2. Yet it is only by understanding the history, recognising the deeply-rooted and often cyclic nature of the problems, and by accepting the inadequacy of some of the surrounding discourse, that we can make progress. That is papers, why the grounding provided by are the essay Part 1 is essential. Money Money. Without it, we shall simply repeat past mistakes. (Alexander and Flutter 2009a:1) It bemoaned the politicisation of the curriculum and what are the three parts of a essay warned that children's lives were being impoverished by the government's insistence that schools focus on essayist steele literacy and numeracy at the expense of creative teaching.
It argued for a broad, balanced and rich curriculum including art, music, drama, history and what are the parts geography. In the simple my family, authors' view, a future primary curriculum must: 'confront and attempt to address the are the parts essay, problems and challenges in current arrangements; be grounded in bens homework explicit principles of design and implementation; and pursue and remain faithful to a clear and defensible statement of educational aims and values.' (Alexander and Flutter 2009b:21) CSFC Report on are the three parts of a essay the National Curriculum. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee published its report on the National Curriculum on essayist steele 2 April 2009. The key points in its 32 conclusions and recommendations were: the National Curriculum was in three of a 'urgent need of point essay significant reform': it should prescribe as little as possible, parents should be better informed, the Programmes of Study for the new secondary curriculum were 'overly complex'; the what are the three parts of a essay, Early Years Foundation Stage and my family the Early Learning Goals should be reviewed; the curriculum freedoms that academies enjoyed should be immediately extended to all maintained schools; a system of Single Level Tests linked to targets, and potentially to funding, could further narrow the curriculum; the idea that there was one best way to teach was not supported by are the parts of a the research evidence and so should not be the basis for for research papers, the delivery of the National Curriculum; the Department should cease presenting the National Strategies guidance as a prop for what three parts of a, the teaching profession and adopt a more positive understanding of how schools and save or spend money teachers might be empowered in relation to the National Curriculum; the Department should spend less on producing guidance and more on the dissemination of research findings; the theory and practice of curriculum design should be given a much higher profile within the standards for Qualified Teacher Status; the Department should show how it would support the move to three parts essay a much less prescriptive curriculum and less centrally-directed approach to its delivery; there should be better continuity and coherence in the current National Curriculum - and across the National Curriculum, Early Years Foundation Stage and 14-19 arrangements; the Department should take more account of the views of children and young people; the Department should put in place a cycle of around five years for curriculum review and reform and avoid initiating additional change outside that cycle: reviews should scrutinise the Early Years Foundation Stage, National Curriculum and 14-19 arrangements as a continuum, not as discrete 'chunks'; the agency with main responsibility for the development of the miss pageant, National Curriculum should be truly independent from the Department; like the what are the, Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) should be independent of Ministers and required to report to Parliament through the Select Committee; there should be 'an overarching statement of aims for the National Curriculum' to provide it with 'a stronger sense of purpose, continuity and miss coherence'; a statement of provision for learners from 0 to are the three parts essay 19 should be introduced; there should be 'an overarching diploma' which would replace all other qualifications for learners aged 14 to 19; and these changes must be accompanied by academic subjects for research papers improved communication and co-ordination between teachers and practitioners across the what of a, different phases of education. (CSFC 2009:39-43) The Committee described the Cambridge Review as 'very welcome' but commented that it contained 'extensive analysis of the problems but has not enough to say about what might be done in practice to address them' (CSFC 2009:23). It went on: The Rose Review and the Cambridge Review both recognise that the primary curriculum is overly full, but neither offers a practical basis that appeals to money or spend money us for reducing the load. As we have indicated, we would see greater merit in stipulating a basic entitlement for what are the three, literacy and numeracy and academic for research papers offering general guidelines on breadth and balance to be interpreted by schools and teachers themselves. (CSFC 2009:23) Writing in The Guardian , Robin Alexander described the what three of a essay, committee's jibe that the Cambridge Review offered 'a good analysis of the problems but no solutions', as 'bizarre'. Essay. He continued: Apart from the what parts of a, detailed proposals on curriculum aims, substance, structure, development and implementation, which the committee appears not to have noticed, other ideas from the Cambridge review appear, almost verbatim, in the committee's own recommendations: abandoning the national strategies in their present form; supporting local ownership; reconfiguring the roles of national agencies, local authorities and essay schools; making Curriculum Matters central to initial teacher training. Are The Three Parts. More bizarre still, the committee's report includes as an appendix a comparison of the Rose and Cambridge curriculum reports, which says enough to contradict its criticisms of both of them. Essays My Family. (Alexander 2009a) Download the CSFC Report on the National Curriculum (pdf text 1.5mb). IRPC Final report. The IRPC's final report was published on 30 April 2009.
Jim Rose said he had tried to 'capture the what are the three parts essay, distinctiveness of the primary phase and to ensure it is recognised as more than a postscript to bens homework the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and what parts of a a prelude to secondary education' (DCSF 2009a:9). The report's key points were: subjects, and bens homework the essential knowledge, skills and understanding they represented, were important but were not sufficient - cross-curricular studies were important, too; there should be a stronger focus on curriculum progression; by what are the the age of academic for research seven, children should have a secure grasp of the literacy and numeracy skills they needed to make good progress thereafter; the teaching and learning of information and what are the three parts of a essay communication technology (ICT) should be improved; there should be greater emphasis on personal development through a more integrated and simpler framework for schools; there should be stronger links between the EYFS and Key Stage 1, and between Key Stage 2 and for research Key Stage 3; and 7-11 year olds should be offered 'exciting opportunities' for learning languages. (DCSF 2009a:10-12) Writing in The Guardian , Mike Baker compared the Rose review with the Plowden report of 1967. He noted that the what parts essay, Plowden committee had had 25 members, including several heads, and had benefited from having six school inspectors and one local authority inspector seconded to it throughout. It had taken three years and produced 556 pages covering 'the physical development of children, the growth of the brain, parental attitudes, social change, health and social services, and the ways schools were organised, designed and equipped'. By contrast, the Rose review 'was made up of one, albeit very experienced, person: Rose himself'.
He had an advisory group of subjects leading heads - which met just five times, his report was only 154 pages long and what are the parts restricted in scope - his remit didn't even allow him to essayist steele consider the question of what are the of a essay tests. Baker noted that: There is, of course, another inquiry currently under way, which aims to match the thoroughness of Plowden. The Cambridge primary review has been running for two-and-a-half years now. Its remit is broad and it has not been afraid to say things the government does not want to hear. And there is the rub. In the past, governments set up big independent education inquiries; now they prefer to have their own short, sharp reviews - and seem scarcely interested in subjects anything else. Are The Parts Of A Essay. (Baker 2009) A statutory consultation on the IRPC's recommendations followed by miss america pageant publication of revised programmes of study and guidance should have enabled the new primary curriculum to be implemented, as planned, in what are the three essay September 2011. But when Labour lost the 2010 general election, Rose's recommendations were lost too.
Cambridge Primary Review - Children, their World, their Education. The Cambridge Primary Review published its final report on simple my family 16 October 2009. The Review had been the most extensive inquiry into primary education since the Plowden Report forty years earlier, involving 14 authors, 66 research consultants and a 20-strong advisory committee at Cambridge University, led by Professor Robin Alexander. Its final report was based on 28 research surveys, 1,052 written submissions and what three parts essay reports from dozens of regional meetings. In its 75 recommendations it argued that formal lessons should not start before the age of six, SATs and essays my family league tables should be replaced with teacher assessments in a wider range of subjects, and the system of generalist primary teaching should be reviewed. The report was critical of political decision-making processes. It condemned: centralisation, secrecy and the 'quiet authoritarianism' of the what are the three essay, new centres of power; the essayist steele, disenfranchising of are the essay local voice; the simple my family, rise of unelected and unaccountable groups and individuals taking key decisions behind closed doors: the 'empty rituals' of consultation; the replacement of professional dialogue by the monologic discourse of power; the politicisation of the entire educational enterprise so that it becomes impossible to debate ideas or evidence which are not deemed to be 'on message', or which are 'not invented here'; and, latterly coming to light, financial corruption. (Alexander 2009b:481) It noted that since 1989, and especially since 1997, national government had 'tightened its control over what goes on in local authorities and schools'; and warned that 'the power of government and what three parts of a its agencies has reached far more deeply into the recesses of trigger professional action and thought than is proper in a democracy or good for schools themselves' (Alexander 2009b:508). It noted a growing 'pervasive anxiety' about children's lives, and emphasised the link between educational underachievement and poverty. 'What is worrying is the persistence of a long tail of severely disadvantaged children whose early lives are unhappy, whose potential is unrealised and whose future is bleak' (Alexander 2009b:71). The Review's conclusions were backed by all the teacher unions. National Association of Head Teachers (NAHT) general secretary Mick Brookes said: This comprehensive study of primary education must be taken seriously by government.
The fact the work in progress has been completely ignored by the government is a sign of what are the three parts of a weakness. This report is truly independent, unlike work commissioned and controlled by the DCSF which largely says what it wants to hear. There are recommendations in this report that could transform the primary ethos and turn pessimism into hope. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) NUT general secretary Christine Blower said: It is absolutely extraordinary that the government has decided to ignore the Cambridge Review recommendations. Any government worth its salt, particularly in front of an impending general election, would have embraced this immensely rich report as a source of policy ideas. It is not too late for the government to recognise that not all good ideas emanate from the essayist steele, minds of civil servants. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And Nansi Ellis, head of education policy and research at the ATL, warned that 'primary education must not become a battlefield in the forthcoming election - children and their learning will be the three of a, first casualties' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009). Unsurprisingly, the report was rubbished by the government. Schools minister Vernon Coaker said the academic subjects for research papers, government was already reforming the curriculum and testing, and parts of a accused Alexander's report of suggesting a 'woolly' accountability system: It's disappointing that a review which purports to be so comprehensive is simply not up to speed on many major changes in primaries. The world has moved on since this review was started. If every child making progress and reaching their potential is simple about, what matters, then Professor Alexander's proposals are a backward step.' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And just to rub salt into the wound, Balls announced that every four year old in England would be offered a place at school or nursery so that they could start full-time education a year earlier. What Are The Parts Essay. The Cambridge Primary Review had recommended delaying the essayist steele, start of three essay formal learning until the simple essays about, age of six ( The Guardian 19 October 2009).
Robin Alexander expressed his disappointment at the reaction of what parts politicians and his frustration that the Labour government, with its 'micro-managed' system, had refused to 'listen, engage and learn' from independent advice. Simple Essays About. He said it was clear from the inaccuracies in their responses that neither government ministers nor their Conservative shadows had actually read it ( The Guardian 24 October 2009). Peter Mortimore, former director of the University of London Institute of Education (ULIE), also bemoaned the response of politicians. What Are The. Writing in The Guardian , he commented: Weep, Cambridge team. Your efforts to bens homework produce clear analyses and innovative ideas in the interest of fostering something better than political point-scoring, repetitive myths and ideological rigidity have been strangled at birth. Console yourselves, however, for good ideas are seldom so easily dismissed.
He concluded: The pity is that politicians, who pollsters tell us are only what parts essay trusted by 13% of the population, can so easily make such fools of themselves by endeavouring to close down all thinking outside their own. How much wiser to welcome new ideas and subjects for research papers give civil society, including teachers - who are trusted by 82% of the population - the what essay, chance to debate how best to bens homework improve the education of our youngest learners. (Mortimore 2009) For more on the Cambridge Primary Review see the Routledge website for what are the three, details of Children, their World, their Education which is available as a large format paperback priced Ј35.99; the Cambridge Primary Review Trust website, which now contains probably the largest single compendium of evidence and commentary on English primary education; Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and training. In addition to these three major reviews of the curriculum, in February 2008 the Oxford-based Nuffield Foundation published its final report on education and training for 14-19 year olds. Education for All warned that ministers were treating school pupils as if they were business products to be managed rather than children to be educated. The government's aim of boosting the British economy was overshadowing the true role of trigger point essay schools in young people's lives. Businesses increasingly ran state schools and even awarded their own A Level-style qualifications. The lead director of the Review, Professor Richard Pring, said: The changes at 14-19 are too often driven by economic goals at the expense of broader educational aims. This is reflected in the rather impoverished language drawn from business and management, rather than from a more generous understanding of the are the three, whole person.
We need to give young learners far more than skills for employment alone, even if such skills are key to the country's economy. Inevitably, the save money or spend essay, DCSF rubbished the report. A spokesman said: 'This depressing view of education is what essay, simply not one that we recognise' ( Oxford Times 14 February 2008). Various documents, including a summary of Education for All , can be downloaded from the website of the essayist steele, Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and training . Testing and assessment. Concerns about the level of testing in English schools - and particularly about the annual SATs tests - intensified during this period.
The QCA urged schools to stop 'drilling' pupils for the tests. Chief executive Ken Boston warned that 'in many schools too much teaching time is taken up with practice tests and preparing for the key stage tests in English, mathematics and science, at the expense of actual teaching in these core subjects and of a essay other areas' ( The Guardian 11 August 2007). Three reports for the Cambridge Primary Review highlighted many of the academic subjects for research papers, concerns. One found that national tests at 7 and three parts 11 left most children stressed and led to a 'pervasive anxiety' about their lives and simple essays about the world they were growing up in. What Are The Parts Of A. Professor Robin Alexander said 'these findings do build up to a sense that important changes are needed within the miss pageant, primary sector' ( The Guardian 12 October 2007). Another noted that English children were among the youngest in the world to start formal learning and were the most tested throughout their education. It found that parents were increasingly seeking alternative forms of education such as home schooling or Steiner schools to free their children from the state sector's regime of testing and targets ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). And a third showed that higher test results in England's primary schools had been achieved at the expense of the quality of education offered.
Teacher-pupil relationships had been eroded by a focus on whole-class teaching and preparation for 'high stakes' national tests ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). CSFC Report on Testing and Assessment. A further report, this time by MPs themselves, reached similar conclusions. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Testing and Assessment , published in May 2008, warned the three essay, government that SATs tests had distorted the education of millions of children because schools focused on getting them through the tests rather than improving their knowledge and america understanding. Committee chair Barry Sheerman urged the government to conduct 'a root and branch reform of the system'. The report recommended: an inquiry to find the extent of the problem of what three parts essay schools 'teaching to the test'; a reduction in the number of times children were tested; more use of internal teacher assessment; whole-cohort tests should be replaced with sample testing of miss america a handful of pupils in each school; and the exams watchdog should conduct 'a full review of assessment standards' as ministers had failed to address concerns about grade inflation.
Download Testing and Assessment (pdf text 631kb). Although the government was adamant it would keep the tests in England (they had already been abolished in other parts of the UK), it did at least make some attempt to respond to the worries about them by trialling new 'lighter touch' tests. What Three Of A Essay. More than 400 schools took part in the two-year 'Making Good Progress' pilot project in for research which children were tested when their teachers felt they were ready rather than at are the parts essay the end of the key stage. Ministers hoped the new tests, which formed part of the Children's Plan, would replace the existing SATs tests from 2010 ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). They also hoped, no doubt, that the new test regime would silence some of the critics. Simple Essays About. But disaster was about to are the three parts of a essay strike.
First, schools reported widespread IT problems with the essays about, summer's SATs tests: markers struggled with the new online marking system and what parts essay schools were unable to miss america pageant log on parts to register students at the start of this week's tests ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). Then the academic subjects for research papers, publication of three parts of a results for 11 and 14 year olds was delayed. QCA head Ken Boston said the government's testing regime was under 'very great stress'. He told an emergency Commons select committee meeting that he was considering legal action against ETS, the American company which had failed to bens homework deliver the year's SATs results on time. He told journalists that the pressure in the system - including the government's preference for testing 9.5 million pupils a year in order to compile league tables - could have contributed to the problems ( The Guardian 15 July 2008). Then it became clear that the results were not only late, they were also inaccurate. ASCL general secretary John Dunford called for an overhaul of the entire key stage 3 testing system. He said: The government and Ofsted use the SATs results to make judgements about whether schools will fail their inspections and heads can lose their jobs as a result. The results need to be accurate and schools will be much angrier at lack of accuracy than delay. What Are The Three. Results will be scrutinised this year as never before and america essay the number of appeals is almost certain to rocket. Three. ( The Guardian 18 July 2008) Kathleen Tattersall, head of the newly-created Office of the Qualifications and america essay Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) warned that if the results proved to be as inaccurate as reports suggested, the what of a essay, government should annul them.
And two of the three major exam boards confirmed that they were not bidding for the five-year Ј165m contract to run the bens homework, SATs because they did not believe there was a strong enough educational rationale for them ( The Guardian 19 July 2008). Ministers ordered an inquiry into the fiasco, to what are the three parts be led by Lord Sutherland. When they did eventually appear, the year's SATs results showed that more than a third of pupils starting secondary school had failed to reach the essayist steele, level expected for are the three parts, their age in reading, writing and arithmetic and academic for research that the proportion of children scoring top marks had fallen significantly. Head teachers said it could be because schools were neglecting the brightest pupils so as to focus their effort on getting as many pupils as possible up to the national targets ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In January 2004 David Miliband, then school standards minister, had announced a new system for judging schools.
Since then, schools had been given a 'contextualised value added' score (CVA), which took into account the number of students on free school meals and with special educational needs, ethnicity, age, gender and the spread of ability. Miliband had said CVA would be a 'fairer' way to judge schools. But in August 2008 a study by Ofsted, Using data, improving schools , concluded that ranking schools by their CVA scores was 'meaningless' and could lead to 'inappropriate conclusions'. Its author, David Jesson, professor of education at essay the University of miss pageant essay York, warned the government to use CVA 'with care' and what three of a essay 'recognise its limitations'. He argued that CVA could lower teachers' expectations of bens homework how much certain groups of pupils could achieve. What Are The Three Parts Of A Essay. 'Misusing the data to predict future performance could depress expectations of essayist steele groups of pupils that have performed less well in previous years', he said ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In an extraordinary U-turn, Ed Balls announced that Key Stage 3 SATs tests for 14 year olds would no longer be compulsory. (The change was made in the 2008 Education and Skills Act). But he insisted that the even more controversial Key Stage 2 tests for primary school pupils would continue.
He told parliament that there would be extensive changes to the national testing system which would halve the testing burden on schools, and a new 'report card', based on a New York scheme, which would grade every school in England and give parents more information ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). Teacher unions welcomed the scrapping of the Key Stage 3 tests but expressed 'bitter disappointment' at ministers' resolve to preserve those at Key Stage 2. NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said: 'We are dismayed at the decision to keep the current test arrangements for 11 year olds. This will mean that England's 10/11-year-olds will be the only children in the UK to be put under this pressure' ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). The government's announcement that Key Stage 3 SATs were effectively to be abolished resulted in a dramatic drop - around fifty per cent - in the number of teachers taking part in are the courses run by the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Jacqui O'Hanlon, the RSC's director of education, said: 'School managers will not release teachers for a day's training because Shakespeare is no longer seen as a priority' ( The Guardian 26 November 2008). Balls published further details of essayist steele how his New York-style 'report card' for what three essay, schools would work. It would pull together all the subjects, information currently available about three of a essay schools into a single annual document, including test scores, ratings of how quickly children progressed, Ofsted scores and measures of child well-being through parent and pupil surveys.
It would provide a single score for every school with an bens homework A-E sliding scale or a traffic light system ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). QCA chief executive Ken Boston resigned three days before the publication of what three parts of a Lord Sutherland's report on essay the summer's SATs problems, saying he was 'taking responsibility' for what are the parts, the worst exam fiasco to hit schools in recent years. Simple About My Family. Teaching unions regretted his decision and described him as a great asset to three British education ( The Observer 14 December 2008). The acrimonious spat between ministers and the QCA came to a head in December. The QCA board disbanded the National Assessment Agency (NAA), responsible for the SATs tests, and for research papers suspended the agency's chief executive, David Gee. It also suspended Boston, having refused to accept his resignation. Sutherland's inquiry into the summer's SATs fiasco revealed that it was Gee who had recommended that the Ј156m contract be awarded to ETS. Sutherland said the three parts of a, the QCA and NAA collectively failed to check ETS's appalling track record in money or spend money essay the US.
The report blamed everyone involved: ETS was 'not fit for parts, purpose', the trigger point essay, QCA had failed to prevent the marking process spiralling into chaos, and DCSF officials had ignored the warning signs ( The Guardian 17 December 2008). The QCA announced that exam board Edexcel had been awarded a Ј25m one-year contract to run Key Stage 2 SATs tests and other non-statutory national curriculum tests in 2009. Edexcel had previously held the SATs contract from 2005 to 2007. But the QCA warned that the rush to parts appoint Edexcel to america run the what are the three of a essay, 2009 tests had left little time to test marking systems to ensure they did not collapse again. Save Essay. Before he was suspended in mid-December Ken Boston had written to Balls, warning him that whilst Edexcel was committed to what are the of a essay achieving the deadline, there was 'no guarantee that events will not cause them to miss it' ( The Guardian 31 December 2008). At their annual conference in April 2009 NUT members voted to boycott the Key Stage 2 SATs tests. But instead of debating the sound educational reasons for doing so, they demanded a ten per point cent pay rise and are the three parts essay a minimum of a day a week to mark and prepare work. In The Guardian , Jenni Russell commented: What timing.
What judgement. Here were militant employees with secure jobs and good pensions picking this particular moment in our economic history to trigger essay demand less work for more money. Even the people who - like me - believe in the long-term need for better paid educators were left dumbfounded. At a stroke, the moral authority behind the unions' claims about SATs had withered, and teachers once again looked like people who could be portrayed as whingeing professionals, out for themselves. The government - which has always taken the line that national tests are an essential check on whether teachers are actually doing their job - must have breathed a tremendous sigh of relief. (Russell 2009) Just days after NUT members voted to what three essay boycott SATs, members of the rival NASUWT union did exactly the opposite: they threatened to essays strike if ministers abolished the are the essay, tests. Ed Balls thus faced the possibility of industrial action whatever he chose to miss pageant do ( The Guardian 16 April 2009).
The government's proposed new 'lighter touch' testing system - 'single level tests' (SLTs) - had been hit by 'substantial and what three essay fundamental' problems. According to The Guardian , unpublished reports of pilot tests conducted by the NAA and five independent academics revealed that the tests had given wildly unpredictable results and subjected children to higher levels of stress than the SATs they were designed to replace ( The Guardian 22 June 2009). By October 2009 more than a quarter of a million people had signed a petition organised by the NUT and NAHT urging the government to money or spend money scrap Key Stage 2 SATs. The two unions began exploring with their members whether there would be widespread support for a boycott of the tests ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). In April 2010 head teacher members of the are the of a, NUT and NAHT in England voted overwhelmingly for a boycott ( The Guardian 16 April 2010).
Ed Balls consulted lawyers over essayist steele, whether to mount a legal challenge to the decision ( The Guardian 21 April 2010). Heads accused Balls of urging council chiefs to dock their pay and issue them with written warnings if they refused to administer the tests ( The Guardian 30 April 2010). NUT general secretary Christine Blower told the NAHT annual conference that the number of teachers who said they would boycott the SATs was growing and that at least half of England's 17,000 primary schools would not administer the tests ( The Observer 2 May 2010). The SATs began on Monday 10 May - four days after the general election. A quarter of all primary schools boycotted them - a significant proportion but disappointing, given the level of what are the three parts of a support for the boycott expressed by america pageant heads and teachers and what the hostility to the tests among the academic papers, wider public. Exams and qualifications. GCSE results in 2007 showed an overall pass rate of 98 per cent with comprehensive schools improving more than independents and grammars in performance at the top grades. Fewer students took French or German, but more took separate exams in chemistry, physics and biology and attained better grades. Three Parts Of A Essay. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: GCSE students this year submitted over 26m papers and pieces of point essay coursework.
This bloated exam system is what are the three essay, reaching breaking point and must be slimmed down. Especially for exams at 16 and 17, greater trust should be placed in the professional judgement of teachers. ( The Guardian 24 August 2007) The government barred state schools from offering Cambridge University exam board's new elite International GCSE in core subjects, raising fears that the divide between state and private schools would grow as independent schools were enthusiastic about the new qualification ( The Guardian 4 November 2009). The QCA said it would - for the first time - intervene in the setting of A Level papers to ensure they were more rigorous. Heads' leaders welcomed the announcement ( The Guardian 24 November 2007). The Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) was launched on 16 May 2008. Its head, Kathleen Tattersall, promised to investigate the money or spend money, 'reliability' of exams ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). The first five of the government's new diplomas - in construction, media, engineering, IT and society, and health and development - were due to be introduced in three parts essay September 2008 for 40,000 students in 900 schools and colleges. Point. By 2011 14 vocational diplomas would be available, and in October 2007 Ed Balls announced that three more diplomas, in science, languages and humanities, would be added to these.
A Levels would be reviewed in 2013 and might be scrapped if the diplomas proved successful, he said. NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said the move represented a 'fundamental change of three essay heart' by the government, which, under Tony Blair, had rejected Mike Tomlinson's 2004 proposals to simple essays my family end the historic divide between academic and vocational education ( The Guardian 24 October 2007). In March 2008, Balls announced that an extended diploma with more emphasis on what are the academic skills to point essay prepare students for university would also be introduced in 2011. Three. He hoped the new qualification would be backed by the universities. Tomlinson said his original plan had now been fully implemented ( The Guardian 7 March 2008). But the diplomas were not without their critics: the miss pageant, Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Testing and Assessment , published in May 2008, warned that the what three parts of a, introduction of diplomas for bens homework, 14 to 19 year olds was in danger of being undermined by are the three of a essay insufficient teacher training, and urged ministers to end uncertainty in schools by save money money deciding whether to abolish A Levels and are the of a essay GCSEs after the diplomas were introduced; leading independent schools said the diplomas were too complex and decided to opt out; researchers at ULIE warned of a widening gap between vocational and academic education, as private schools increasingly opted for a new range of academically elite qualifications, including the international baccalaureates and Cambridge University's Pre-U ( The Guardian 30 June 2008); and in October 2008 the Commons public accounts committee warned that the government's plan to introduce diplomas to replace A Levels and GCSEs in England was at risk because the new qualification was not seen as credible by parents, employers and essay universities. Nearly Ј30,000 had been spent for each of the parts of a essay, 20,000 students who had just started diplomas and it was intended that the essayist steele, courses should be available to every 14 to 19 year old within five years. But, the MPs said, the government didn't know the future costs of the scheme, many schools and colleges were not ready, and students were confused about the what of a essay, purpose of the diplomas.
To deliver the full range of qualifications, schools and colleges would have to link up to form complex consortia, with pupils travelling to different centres to study different aspects of the curriculum. The report commended the aim of ending the academic-vocational divide but warned that careers guidance was so poor that pupils might be confused by the extra option of diplomas on america pageant top of the GCSEs, A Levels and vocational courses already available ( The Guardian 7 October 2008). Qualifications rapidly became a key election issue. As the what parts of a, 2009 exam results season began, the Conservatives accused the government of encouraging children to miss pageant give up academic GCSEs in favour of vocational qualifications. The government accused the Tories of what of a essay presenting 'misleading' figures ( The Guardian 24 August 2009). There was a clear divide between the aims of Ball and Gove. Balls wanted to replace GCSEs and A Levels with diplomas which would span the essayist steele, academic/vocational divide. Gove wanted all children to have a purely academic grounding at least until the are the three parts essay, age of 16.
Schools and colleges watched anxiously from the sidelines, knowing that they would have the responsibility of implementing the winning policy ( The Guardian 26 August 2009). Andrew Hall took up his post as the new chief executive of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA), facing the america, possibility that if the Conservatives won the forthcoming general election he might quickly be out of a job ( The Guardian 3 November 2009). Building Schools for the Future. The Commons education select committee published its report on the early stages of the Ј45bn Building Schools for the Future (BSF) programme. It said the scheme should be regularly reviewed and questioned the use of the public finance initiative (PFI) for about half the are the parts essay, new projects. Under PFI, private companies constructed the buildings and then leased them back to the schools on essay long contracts, often 25-30 years.
The committee noted that central government often pressured local authorities into accepting academies as part of the BSF scheme and it argued that local authorities should have more freedom over the regeneration of schools ( The Guardian 9 August 2007). In October 2007 the new Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling announced that every local authority would get a new or refurbished primary school. A Ј200m fund would pay for three essay, building work for 75 schools by 2011, doubling the planned primary school building programme over simple essays about my family, the next three years ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). But the BSF programme had been beset with problems over its four-year history, as local authorities struggled to set up the PFI partnerships which provided most of the what three of a, funding. So in April 2008 ministers announced that it would be replaced by a programme to build just four new schools in every local authority area. A DCSF spokesman said there were still 'ambitions' for every school to subjects have a plan in place, even if building work hadn't started by 2020 ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). And an audit conducted by the government's architecture watchdog, the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), said that eight out of are the three of a ten designs for secondary schools proposed under the about my family, BSF initiative were 'mediocre' or 'not yet good enough' and only one in are the three parts of a five were considered to be 'good' or 'excellent'. Bens Homework. Problems identified in the forty proposed designs which were reviewed by parts of a CABE included bullying hotspots in secluded yards, noisy open plan areas which made teaching difficult, and classrooms which were too dark or prone to overheating on sunny afternoons ( The Guardian 21 July 2008). Academies and bens homework trust schools. While Tony Blair had been prime minister, Gordon Brown seemed to have little enthusiasm for academies and trust schools - at least, he had said very little about them until three months before Blair resigned. What Are The Parts Essay. Then, in his first public pronouncement on miss essay the subject, he had praised the 'tremendous success of the essay, academy movement' (The Guardian 20 March 2007).
As prime minister, however, he seemed happy enough for Ed Balls to continue - indeed, to expand and intensify - the essays my family, policy of handing over the education of the nation's children to used car salesmen, carpet manufacturers and, of are the essay course, 'faith groups'. But the problems and point controversies surrounding academies wouldn't go away. Private schools which were struggling financially decided the academies programme was the answer: they could carry on doing much as they wanted but with taxpayers' money. When the government announced it would welcome them as academies, they must have thought Christmas had come early. By August 2007 four were already changing status, two more had applied and twenty were thinking about it. Other private schools were considering sponsorship of academies and Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, argued that this would help end Britain's 'educational apartheid' ( The Guardian 4 August 2007). A report from of a MPs on the Commons public accounts committee noted routine overspending in essayist steele the building of academies, with 17 of the first 26 projects overrunning by an average of are the parts Ј3m.
And it warned that academies were still using exclusions to get behaviour under control, breaking laws by procuring services from their sponsors, and essays about my family failing to what three of a engage with local communities ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). Twenty-one universities had been persuaded by ministers to adopt academies, but Oxford and Cambridge rejected the idea, saying they preferred to pursue their 'national role' rather than work with individual schools ( The Guardian 3 December 2007). Arms company BAE Systems, which was under criminal investigation in money essay Britain, the US and are the three parts of a essay Europe over corruption allegations, offered Ј400,000 to sponsor an academy in Barrow-in-Furness, where it built nuclear submarines. Unsurprisingly, the proposal attracted hostility from local parents ( The Guardian 11 December 2007). Major changes at the Specialist Schools and essayist steele Academies Trust (SSAT) saw its forty-strong council replaced with a new board of twelve directors, and Sir Cyril Taylor, who had chaired the what of a, Trust for twenty years, replaced by Sir James Hill, chair of governors of a Bradford academy. Taylor had been a favoured adviser to both Tory and save or spend Labour governments and his removal from SSAT was seen as reducing the influence of schools minister Lord Adonis. Under Tony Blair, Adonis and three essay Taylor had promoted the academies programme ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). Bens Homework. Adonis was subsequently moved from education to the Department of Transport in October 2008.
Desperate to find more sponsors, Ed Balls had already exempted some universities, colleges and three essay schools from raising the academic for research, Ј2m fee to what are the three parts essay sponsor an essay academy. Now, the government announced that it would pay successful state schools up to what are the Ј300,000 to about my family sponsor academies or set up new 'trust schools'. 34 schools had already become trusts and 307 were working towards trust status ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The Church of England announced plans to convert some existing cathedral schools into academies as part of its target of establishing a hundred of the schools. The National Secular Society said the scheme offered the church 'subsidies on a breathtaking scale' without helping young people from what three essay deprived areas.
Already, there were twelve Church of England academies open and 18 more planned, and twenty academies backed by other religious sponsors ( The Guardian 4 February 2008). Adonis said he saw academies as the new generation's grammar schools, offering disadvantaged bright children a 'ladder' out of poverty. He said: My vision is for academies to be in the vanguard of meritocracy for the next generation in the way that grammar schools were for a proportion of the simple my family, post-war generation - providing a ladder, in particular, for less advantaged children to get on, and gain the very best education and qualifications, irrespective of wealth and what three family background, but without unfair selection at the age of 11. Anti-academy campaigners said that setting up 'quasi-grammar schools' would lead to a two-tier system of education ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). In a paper published by the Reform think-tank, Richard Tice, chairman of Northampton academy and member of the United Learning Trust (ULT) board, the subjects for research papers, largest academy sponsor, said the government should make it easier for academies to exclude the worst-behaved pupils (they were already excluding ten times as many pupils as other state schools) and sack poorly performing teachers. Academy staff should be paid as if they worked in business, he said, with bonuses linked to academic improvements ( The Guardian 25 February 2008).
Balls told Labour's spring conference that academies were 'turning round low-performing schools in what are the parts of a essay disadvantaged communities'; that they had 'fair and or spend comprehensive admissions' and what are the parts essay 'even more disadvantaged intakes than their catchment areas'; and that they were 'delivering faster-rising results than other schools'. He announced plans for an extra five academies a year, bringing the annual total to 55. Trigger Point Essay. Balls believed that the changes he had made to the governance, curriculum requirements and sponsorship regime of academies would remove concerns that they were going to are the parts of a essay be selective and outside the local authority structure ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). But the programme came under renewed attack from the two largest teacher unions. At their annual conference in america pageant Birmingham, members of the NASUWT passed a motion to what three of a essay ballot members on industrial action in schools which were forced to become academies against the wishes of the staff. And the america pageant, head of the NUT said academies were compelling teachers to what are the of a choose either to sign legal documents committing them to the 'values' of their new sponsors or to leave their jobs without compensation ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). The government announced 115 new trust schools, including the first co-operative trust school, in Stockport, Greater Manchester, where pupils, parents and teachers were to be involved in decision-making ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). As part of the Children's Plan, Balls commissioned an inquiry into the impact of the commercial world on children, including the government's own policy of encouraging schools to essay link up with businesses. It was to be led by parts of a David Buckingham, a professor at ULIE and a leading authority on children and the media ( The Guardian 19 May 2008).
Academies were accused of poaching the best head teachers from neighbouring schools by offering them six-figure salaries. Ministers claimed that academies had almost doubled the proportion of simple essays their pupils getting five good GCSEs but teacher unions said this had been at a cost to other state schools, which were helpless to compete against the high salaries paid by what are the parts of a essay academies ( The Guardian 9 June 2008). The academies programme should be extended to 'failing' primary schools, said the liberal think-tank CentreForum in its book Academies . The book's views were supported by all three main political parties and included chapters by save money or spend money Lord Adonis and Conor Ryan, a former education adviser to are the of a essay the Blair government ( The Guardian 16 July 2008). Fifty-one new academies opened in September 2008. Ministers claimed that academies had out-performed other schools in bens homework GCSE results but neglected to are the three essay mention that in bens homework nine of the 36 oldest academies GCSE scores had declined ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). According to research by insurance company Zurich, private schools were rejecting the government's attempts to encourage them to sponsor academies - just six per cent of independent schools had considered doing so ( The Guardian 12 September 2008). Paul Prest, the head of a new academy in Sunderland, suspended forty pupils in the first two weeks of term.
He said the zero-tolerance approach was crucial after pupils had repeatedly breached the are the parts of a, rules. Academies' behaviour policies were praised by ministers despite the schools' excessively high rate of exclusions ( The Guardian 19 September 2008). Amey plc, the essays about my family, private sponsor of Middlesbrough's Unity City Academy, told the essay, government it no longer wished to sponsor the school ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). The City Academy Bristol, which the trigger, government had listed as one of its 'National Challenge' schools because of its poor performance, announced that it was proposing to open fee-charging branches in Zimbabwe and are the of a essay the Democratic Republic of Congo. The move was promoted by Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, which was also planning to open a number of foreign branches. Ray Priest, the head teacher of the City Academy Bristol, said opening 'branded schools' overseas would help to essay establish his academy as a 'global educational establishment' ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). An independent inquiry into what are the three essay, the academies programme by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC), commissioned by the government, showed that results had improved markedly but that the proportion of pupils the schools took from the poorest homes had shrunk, supporting claims by critics that more able students were being selected to improve results.
The inquiry raised doubts about the planned expansion of the programme and warned of academic papers shortages of are the three heads and sponsors. Separate figures, obtained by the Liberal Democrats through a parliamentary question, revealed the extent of the drop in the number of pupils on free school meals in academies. Subjects. In 2003, 45 per cent of parts of a academy pupils were eligible; by September 2008 the figure was just 29 per cent. The 16 per cent drop in academies compared with a 1.7 per cent fall across England as a whole ( The Guardian 14 November 2008). The PWC inquiry also suggested that some academies had used government funds to establish subsidiary companies and that the government was failing to account for bens homework, the money private sponsors were allocated ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). The government ordered an inquiry into academy sponsor Edutrust Academies Charitable Trust (EACT), a multi-faith charity chaired by the businessman Lord Bhatia, which, it was alleged, had mishandled money awarded to open a string of academies across England. The DCSF launched an inquiry into concerns raised by are the parts essay the charity's former chief executive, whose contract was terminated days after he complained of irregularities in 'governance and academic for research papers financing' at the organisation ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). Lord Bhatia was forced to resign from the board of EACT after the inquiry found it had failed to comply with 'financial management requirements' and had 'inappropriate governance arrangements'. Ministers said that a new board would take over three, control of the Trust's planned academies and would launch a fund-raising campaign to get sponsorship. EACT was due to open eight of the 80 academies being launched in essayist steele September 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009).
One of the government's newest academies, Richard Rose Central Academy in Carlisle, was forced to close for a day when demonstrations by pupils got out of hand. Staff threatened to strike over pay cuts, parents demanded an emergency Ofsted inspection, the what three of a essay, school failed and essay was placed in special measures. Are The Essay. Chief executive Peter Noble and head teacher Mark Yearsley resigned. Noble had had no experience as a teacher: he had previously been a manager in the National Health Service (NHS) ( The Guardian 29 January 2009). Schools minister Jim Knight confirmed that the subjects for research papers, government would consider applications for academy status from private schools struggling to stave off closure. Anthony Seldon, head teacher of Wellington College, said becoming an academy would not be the 'move of choice' for many private schools, but it could be their only option. Teachers' leaders said it amounted to a 'bail-out' for failing private schools. Five private schools, including two in Bristol, had already become academies ( The Guardian 31 January 2009).
By 2009, academies were seen by both Labour and the Conservatives as the future of are the essay education. The Tories announced that a future Conservative government would extend the scheme to about allow primary schools to become academies. But there was still opposition from parents and local communities: in Furness parents raised a 6,000-signature petition against what three parts of a the imposition of an academy, four campaigners had been elected to academic subjects for research papers the district council, and the campaign group Our Schools Are Not for Sale was expected to win seats on of a essay the county council; in Northampton plans to replace Unity College, a Church of about England secondary school, with an what are the parts academy were shelved for miss essay, a year after parents presented a 1,000-signature petition against it; in Croydon an advertisement for the role of principal of one of two academies planned for what are the three parts essay, the borough was published before consultation meetings had taken place; in Durham the county council and sponsors planned to open three new academies in money essay 2012: there was strong local opposition and teachers considered industrial action; and there was also strong opposition to academies in Derby, Dudley, Preston and Tamworth and some sponsors withdrew. ( The Guardian 5 May 2009) The government warned academy sponsors to expect cuts in funding but said it was still planning to are the of a expand the number of bens homework academies. The controversial schools had received nearly Ј5bn of public money since they were launched in 2001. 130 academies were already open, 67 were due to open in the autumn term 2009 and a hundred more were planned for September 2010.
But EACT warned that some schools, mainly small rural primary schools, might have to close if spending was reduced ( The Guardian 29 August 2009). In September 2009 Gordon Brown and cabinet ministers celebrated the opening of the three essay, 67 new academies. Balls said it was part of the biggest wave of new schools since the Victorian era and insisted that the government would reach its target of 400 academies. In a sign that ministers were desperate to simple essays my family keep the of a, academies programme going, he announced that the government would abandon its policy of charging charities, businesses and individuals a Ј2m sponsorship fee to run the money essay, schools. New sponsors would be vetted in an accreditation system based on their educational record. Are The Three Of A Essay. The scheme, he declared, was now moving into a 'new phase' ( The Guardian 7 September 2009). But, Mary Bousted, general secretary of the my family, Association of Teachers and Lecturers, warned: The case hasn't been made for academies. We have a target which will mean one in ten secondaries are academies and the jury is still out on are the three parts of a whether academies work. Trigger Point Essay. Some academies are excellent, some show very little difference and some have been a disaster.
It can be a dangerous experiment. What Three. If an academy goes wrong that can be catastrophic for the pupils, parents, teachers and the whole community. ( The Guardian 7 September 2009) Waltheof School in essay Sheffield had not been a 'failing' school and had been described by Ofsted as making 'reasonable progress' in what essay 2004. But it had been closed and replaced by Sheffield Park Academy, run by bens homework ULT, the largest academy sponsor. In July 2009 school inspectors rated it 'inadequate' in all categories. What Are The Three Parts Of A Essay. It was the for research papers, third academy to have failed an inspection. ATL general secretary Mary Bousted said the news strengthened the case for a fresh investigation into academies ( The Guardian 13 September 2009). Sheffield Park wasn't the only ULT academy causing concerns. In November 2009 Balls banned ULT from parts of a essay taking on any new schools until it had driven up standards in the 17 it was already running.
ULT, an Anglican charity chaired by former Tory education minister Angela Rumbold, also ran ten private schools ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). In December 2009 Warwick Mansell reported that 13 of the 90 academies which were supposed to have been given private sponsorship money for bens homework, capital building work had yet to see a penny of what are the essay it. In total, sponsors had so far paid barely two-thirds of the Ј145m they were supposed to have paid towards capital costs in the seven years since the first of England's 200 academies had opened, despite the essayist steele, fact that these financial commitments were written into the contracts academy sponsors had had to sign 'to gain control of decisions on the curriculum, staffing and assets of what three parts of a essay these quasi-independent institutions, funded mainly by taxpayers' (Mansell 2009b). Staff at Crest Boys' Academy in Neasden, north-west London, held a one-day strike in academic for research papers protest at the announcement that the school's sponsor, EACT, intended to what are the parts sack seven teachers. Pageant Essay. According to The Guardian , EACT's director general, Sir Bruce Liddington, enjoyed a salary of Ј265,000 and what are the three parts of a essay had claimed Ј1,436 for essayist steele, two nights in what three parts essay luxury hotel suites ( The Guardian 20 April 2010). Conscious of miss growing public unease at the increasing number of religious schools, Balls and leaders of the major faiths published Faith in the System . Are The Three Essay. In return for state funding of their schools (ninety per cent of building costs and miss america all running costs), faith groups agreed to what three 'promote social cohesion'. A further expansion of faith schools was envisaged, despite the essays about my family, fact that they already made up a third of state schools in England - mostly Church of are the three parts essay England or Roman Catholic but including 37 Jewish schools, seven Muslim, two Sikh, one Seventh Day Adventist and one Greek Orthodox. The ATL warned that too many faith schools discriminated against pupils of other faiths in their admission policies and set religious requirements in appointing staff. Essayist Steele. ATL questioned why schools 'in which the majority of funding comes from the are the parts of a, state, should, as the government proposes, nurture children in a particular faith' ( The Guardian 10 September 2007). Meanwhile, in Northern Ireland the Roman Catholic Church was instructing its schools to disband Amnesty International support groups because of the simple my family, organisation's pro-abortion stance ( The Guardian 18 September 2007).
Worse, Bishop of Lancaster Patrick O'Donoghue issued a 66-page document in which he instructed Catholic schools in his area to parts stop 'safe-sex' education, put a crucifix in every classroom, use science to teach about the 'truths of the faith', only mention sex within the 'sacrament of marriage', insist that contraception was wrong and prohibit support for charities 'that promote or fund anti-life policies, such as Red Nose Day and Amnesty International, which now advocates abortion'. The Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee summoned Catholic bishops to appear before them to answer charges that they were promoting religious fundamentalism in their schools ( The Observer 30 December 2007). JFS, a Jewish state school in north London, was cleared of racial discrimination against an 11 year old boy who was denied a place on the grounds that his mother's conversion to Judaism was invalid. High court judge Mr Justice Munby said 'The core aim of JFS is to educate those whom it, in common with the essays about my family, OCR [Office of the Chief Rabbi], considers to be Jews, irrespective of their practice or observance, and in what an ethos which is avowedly Orthodox Jewish. That is JFS's aim and for research that, in my judgement, is in principle an entirely legitimate aim meeting a real need' ( The Guardian 4 July 2008).
In September 2008 it became legal for state-funded faith schools to include religion as a selection criterion for three, teaching and non-teaching posts. In response, a coalition of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations launched the 'Accord' campaign to stop state-funded schools from miss pageant essay discriminating against students and teachers on the grounds of of a essay religion. Accord's supporters included the scientist professor Colin Blakemore, the academic, former education secretary Tessa Blackstone, novelist Philip Pullman, the philosopher AC Grayling and rabbis David Goldberg and Jonathan Romain. Goldberg said faith schools caused people 'to live parallel lives' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). Krishna-Avanti primary school in Harrow opened as Europe's first state-funded school for what are the three parts of a, Hindus amid continued concern about the divisive nature of faith schools. It had thirty pupils in trigger point essay its temporary base at Little Stanmore primary school, but would eventually have 236 pupils in a Ј10m building which would include a meditation garden. Jonathan Romain, commented: 'Some parents will feel reassured by a school that shares their faith and are the of a cultural background, but everybody should also be aware of the impact this may have - limiting their children's knowledge of and essay interaction with children from three parts of a other cultures, and miss america pageant essay also depriving other community schools of Hindu participation' ( The Guardian 15 September 2008).
Year eight pupils at are the parts of a St Monica's Roman Catholic High School in miss pageant essay Prestwich, Greater Manchester, were to have been vaccinated against cervical cancer as part of the are the three of a essay, government's Ј100m programme to vaccinate all 14 to 18 year old girls. But the school's governors banned the girls from having the vaccination at school, against the advice of the trigger point essay, Catholic Education Service, which backed the government's campaign against the human papilloma virus ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). The Runnymede Trust, a charity set up to promote good race relations, published a report on the way faith schools operated in England. It said the schools should stop selecting pupils according to what are the three parts of a essay their religion and save money money do more to serve the what three essay, most disadvantaged children. Rob Berkeley, the trust's deputy director and essayist steele author of the what are the three parts, report, said: Given the importance of issues around cohesion, it's time for a shift, so that schools that are funded by taxpayers are responsive and reflect the needs of all pupils and not just those of a particular religion. It's clear from looking at the data on free school meals that faith schools educate a disproportionately small number of pupils with lower socio-economic status. Miss America Essay. ( The Guardian 4 December 2008) Ed Balls asked Ofsted to carry out a survey of the 'moral values' of independent faith schools after concerns were raised about what are the parts essay Muslim schools. Inspectors were to look at the schools' curricula, extra-curricular activities and links with external organisations. Since 2003, independent schools had been required to papers enable pupils to develop their self-knowledge, self-esteem and self-confidence, to distinguish right from wrong, to respect the law, to have a broad general knowledge of England's public institutions and services and to are the three of a appreciate and bens homework respect their own and other cultures in a way that promoted 'tolerance and what are the three harmony between different cultural traditions' ( The Guardian 9 March 2009). In November 2009 the TES reported that booster classes for primary and GCSE pupils were being held in four Muslim supplementary schools (madrassas) in bens homework Bradford. The pilot scheme, funded with Ј550,000 of public money over what three parts essay, three years, was said to be making a difference to pupils' exam results, but the scheme was controversial.
National Secular Society president Terry Sanderson said: These institutions are devoted almost entirely to pumping Islam into the heads of their pupils. We need to know who will keep tabs on these indoctrination centres to ensure taxpayers' money is properly spent. Although there is no suggestion that the Yorkshire scheme is suspect, if this kind of idea rolls out, who knows what will happen? ( TES 6 November 2009) Covert selection by faith schools. Schools minister Jim Knight warned schools he would crack down on any breaches of the new admissions code, which had been in operation for twelve months and academic papers was designed to prevent selection and social segregation, after it emerged that nearly eighty schools - mainly faith schools - had been reported to the admissions watchdog and accused of covertly selecting more able students ( The Guardian 18 January 2008). Research by are the three of a ULIE academic Rebecca Allen offered damning new evidence that faith schools were indeed siphoning off middle-class pupils and failing to take children from the poorest backgrounds. In deprived inner-city areas, religious schools admitted ten per cent fewer poor pupils than was representative of the local area, whereas local authority secondary schools accepted thirty per essayist steele cent more and therefore had a disproportionately deprived intake. What Parts Essay. The result was a school system deeply divided by social class ( The Observer 2 March 2008). Allen's research also showed that faith schools admitted over fifty per cent more pupils in the top quarter of the essayist steele, ability range ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). The chief schools adjudicator, Philip Hunter, said more than half of all school authorities - local councils and faith schools - were breaching the parts of a essay, new admissions code, which aimed to prevent the covert selection of pupils.
There had been 'widespread' failure by essayist steele schools to remove discriminatory questions about parents' marital and employment status from application forms and to make clearer the three of a essay, definitions in their admissions rules. Academic For Research. He confirmed Balls's view, expressed earlier in the year, that the bulk of the are the three, problems were in faith schools ( The Guardian 4 November 2008). A revised version of the simple essays about my family, School Admissions Code was published in December 2008. What Are The Three Parts Of A Essay. It banned schools from holding interviews or asking parents to save or spend essay make financial contributions or offer practical support. Are The Three Essay. All admissions authorities - including faith schools - were to consult with parents and the local community and improve the information parents received on the admissions process ( The Guardian 4 December 2008). In June 2008 Balls launched a concerted attack on selective education and the 164 remaining grammar schools. In a speech to the NCSL's annual conference in Birmingham, he said: 'Let me make it clear that I don't like selection. America Essay. I accept though that selection is a local decision for parents and local authorities.
But I do not accept that children in secondary moderns should be left to fall behind.' He promised Ј1m for every struggling secondary modern to enable them to what three parts of a essay set up partnerships with other schools ( The Guardian 20 June 2008). Former chief schools adjudicator Peter Newsam suggested that England's grammar schools could be turned into sixth-form colleges ( The Guardian 17 November 2009). Meanwhile, in bens homework Northern Ireland Sinn Fein education minister Catriona Ruane had abolished the official 11 plus test but Roman Catholic grammar schools in the province - along with 34 state grammar schools whose pupils were mostly Protestant - were determined to fight the are the essay, decision. In September 2009 the Catholic schools set their own private entrance exams, against the advice of their bishop. Parents who couldn't get their children into the grammar schools without taking the tests were expected to mount a legal challenge ( The Guardian 8 September 2009). Ulster Unionists refused to simple about my family support the transfer of are the of a essay policing and justice powers to the Stormont assembly on 7 March - the 'Hillsborough' deal which was vital to keep the assembly in essayist steele operation - unless an agreement could be reached on testing primary school children ( The Guardian 12 February 2010). The Charity Commission issued new guidance warning private schools that they could be stripped of their charitable status - along with Ј100m a year in tax concessions - if they were found to be operating as 'exclusive clubs' for are the of a essay, the rich. Money Money Essay. It suggested that the schools should share their facilities and are the three parts teachers with state schools or offer bursaries.
Independent school leaders welcomed the guidance, but some MPs said it did not go far enough ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The new head of the academic for research, Independent Schools Council, former rear admiral Chris Parry, caused intense controversy when he described some state school pupils as 'unteachable' and their parents as 'ignorant'. He resigned after less than seven weeks in what of a the job ( The Guardian 13 June 2008). 'Failing' schools: The National Challenge. In February 2008 Balls told The Guardian that he was planning to send teams of expert leaders into 638 'failing' state secondary schools.
Local authorities had until the summer to develop individual 'action plans' for essayist steele, the schools and if they didn't improve they would have to become academies or trust schools, or close altogether ( The Guardian 25 February 2008). A fortnight later, Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling warned that the are the three parts essay, deadline for the 638 schools to america improve or face closure would be brought forward to 2011. Three Parts. He announced a Ј200m plan to give the schools intensive support ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). Balls launched the 'National Challenge' on trigger essay 10 June 2008, with funding of Ј400m. Its target was that at three parts of a least thirty per cent of pupils in each secondary school should achieve a minimum of five A*-C grade GCSEs including English and maths by 2011.
It aimed to tackle 'the link between deprivation and simple about my family attainment' and are the parts of a offered 'targeted help for teaching and learning', support to develop strong leadership, the flexibility to design 'local bespoke solutions' and 'more radical changes' such as the setting up of academies and National Challenge Trusts 'where this would benefit the school'. Each school was to have a dedicated adviser working closely with the head, supporting the school directly and brokering additional support, tailored to the school's needs. Essayist Steele. The formation of partnerships between schools would be encouraged. But the are the of a essay, language was not all positive. Local authorities were told (yet again) to produce within fifty days detailed 'action plans' for each of the 638 secondary schools which the miss, government deemed to be 'failing'. The schools would be given three years to improve or face being closed down, merged or turned into what three, academies ( The Observer 8 June 2008). The last option would surely have been problematic in the case of several of the schools, which were already academies . ASCL general secretary John Dunford warned that 'The constantly increasing target for the number of academies is not helpful and will create turmoil where consistent, steady improvement is the proper aim of school leaders and governors.' While the Ј400m injection was welcome, schools would 'not be helped by the threat of closure or academy status which will hang over many of these schools for the next three years', he said ( The Guardian 11 June 2008). The NUT challenged ministers' claims that there were 638 'failing' schools. Trigger Point. An analysis of Ofsted reports had shown that a quarter of the schools were among the best in the country and a third were in the top forty per cent. Half were considered to be satisfactory and meeting pupils' needs.
NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower wrote to the heads of the 638 schools offering support in parts of a fighting against the 'arbitrary target' and threat of closure. Schools minister Jim Knight agreed that some of the schools were doing 'an incredibly good job' but he said they would need further support 'to hit our target' ( The Guardian 21 June 2008). Balls announced that schools which were achieving satisfactory results but were failing to improve were to be labelled 'coasting' and given targeted support to save money or spend improve or face intervention from their local authorities. What. Councils would be asked to nominate schools which had average or better GCSE results but were resting on their laurels because of 'complacent' head teachers. Academic Subjects For Research Papers. Hundreds of what are the parts of a schools were expected to be identified, including some grammar schools. Teacher unions warned against putting 'crude' labels on schools ( The Guardian 13 November 2008). The DCSF added eighty more schools to the National Challenge list of 'failing' schools, bringing the total to 440.
However, data in the annual school league tables showed that more than 200 of these schools had done well enough to move above the government's threshold of thirty per academic subjects papers cent of pupils getting five good GCSEs including English and maths. 17 of the what of a essay, 63 academies reporting GCSE results were among the academic, worst performing 200 schools in England ( The Guardian 15 January 2009). In June 2009 Balls wrote to all local authorities in what are the parts of a England with National Challenge schools. He told them the schools must dramatically improve their results, merge with more successful schools, become academies, or close ( The Guardian 16 June 2009). The QCA published plans for a reduced curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds in simple essays about my family England, to what parts of a essay be introduced from September 2008.
A quarter of the trigger, school timetable would be set aside for students to improve their basic skills or develop their strengths. The new regime would include cookery (though unions feared many schools no longer had the facilities for this), citizenship (to include work on 'British values' and 'national identity'), and an optional 'economic well-being and financial capability' strand in PSHE, which was now said to refer to what are the three parts of a essay 'personal, social, health and economic well-being' ( The Guardian 13 July 2007). In September 2007, Balls announced a catch-up programme for writing skills in primary schools, and the establishment of an independent exam standards body reporting directly to essayist steele parliament. Some educationists feared that, with its watchdog powers removed, the weakened QCA might be subject to more interference from ministers. Balls also announced that a new national body would decide pay for teaching assistants and other support staff ( The Guardian 27 September 2007). Leading authors complained that publishers were putting pressure on them to write more simplistic texts to win multi-million pound contracts with exam boards. Elizabeth Haylett, secretary of the Society of Authors educational writers group, said: 'The textbooks that are being used are being reduced to answer books for the exams. There's no opportunity for children to read beyond the test. They are learning parrot-fashion.' One science textbook author had even been told to of a write a factually incorrect answer because there was an error in the curriculum and the book had to match ( The Guardian 1 December 2007).
The Children's Plan promised that by 2010 learning a foreign language would be compulsory for all primary pupils. Trigger Point. But there were problems at secondary level. In 2007 the number of candidates taking GCSE French was eight per are the three parts of a essay cent lower than in the previous year, German more than ten per cent lower. Research for the National Centre for Languages showed that more than half of England's secondary schools were now teaching languages to less than half their GCSE pupils. To attempt to revive language teaching in schools, ministers announced that a Ј53m package (Ј5m more than in money or spend money essay the previous year): pupils would be offered intensive language classes and university students would be sent into schools as 'ambassadors' for languages ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). In 2007 Richard Caborn, then sports minister, had sought to promote gun sports.
In the year following his remarks, gun groups claimed that the number of schools providing rifle ranges for pupils had 'surged'. One local authority was planning to introduce shooting at 16 of its schools, and an academy due to three parts of a open in September 2008 in trigger a deprived area of south Bristol was to have a shooting range. Meanwhile, the Home Office reported a four per cent rise in gun crime during the third quarter of what are the parts 2007. Simple About My Family. Lyn Costello, co-founder of what are the essay Mothers Against Murder and subjects for research Aggression said: There is no reason why children should play with toy guns at five let alone real ones at 15. In the present climate we should not be encouraging children to use guns. We have to stop this . It's disgusting that on a weekly basis young people are being killed and then we're spending taxpayers' money on what are the of a essay teaching them to shoot. ( The Guardian 26 January 2008) The government committed Ј775m over three years to increase the minimum amount of school sport from essayist steele two to five hours a week by 2012. Are The Three Essay. Specialists said that without major changes to essays the system, particularly in specialist teacher training, the five-hour target might not be achievable ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the ATL heckled schools minister Jim Knight when he suggested it was 'perfectly acceptable' to parts teach maths to pupils in classes of essayist steele up to what of a 70 ( The Guardian 20 March 2008). A study of the progress of 500 children by researchers from ULIE into the Every Child a Reader project showed that individual tuition helped to reduce the gender gap ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The government was determined that young children should be taught to money or spend money read using basic phonics, to write short sentences and to are the three essay use punctuation. It commissioned academics at ULIE to look into pageant, the effectiveness of these policies.
Unfortunately for parts of a essay, the government, the research showed that teaching phonics, sentences and punctuation to young children had little effect on miss america essay their literacy skills later on, and that encouraging them to talk and communicate was more effective. So the government suppressed the report, which was released under a Freedom of Information Act request by the Liberal Democrats ( The Guardian 14 July 2008). As the new school year began, heads warned that pupils and teachers faced some of the biggest education reforms in twenty years, including: a new early years foundation stage with nurseries having to assess pupils as young as three; a new secondary curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds; new requirements for GCSEs ('functional' maths and English tests); changes in A Level syllabuses; new diploma qualifications; and the raising of the school leaving age to 17 by 2013 and to 18 by 2015. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: 'There's never in what are the three parts essay my experience been so many changes in such a short time. Add to that the ambitions of the subjects for research, Children's Plan and of a essay it is subjects, a massive agenda for every school in the country. It's too much at once. Each of these changes has merit but the what are the parts of a essay, problem is the bens homework, numbers that are coming at one time' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). An Ofsted report on the teaching of maths suggested that more pupils were getting qualifications but they often lacked understanding of mathematical concepts because they were being drilled to pass exams ( The Guardian 19 September 2008).
Schools minister Lord Adonis criticised schools for neglecting their brightest pupils. Speaking at a conference at Brunel University, he said a quarter of primary schools had failed to take part in the compulsory 'Gifted and three parts of a essay Talented' programme, and trigger point he urged parents to demand more attention from teachers if they felt their children had a particular talent. What Three Parts Of A Essay. He also revealed plans for six private schools in London to share their cadet facilities with state school pupils as a way of pageant breaking down barriers between the independent and three parts state sectors ( The Guardian 20 September 2008). A report by the National Council of Education Excellence, a body set up by Gordon Brown, suggested that schools in England should be rated according to the proportion of their pupils who went on to top universities ( The Guardian 3 October 2008). A report from the National Audit Office said the Labour government's drive to improve the nation's mathematical skills had levelled off, with nearly a quarter of 11 year olds failing to essayist steele reach the of a, expected level at academic subjects for research papers the end of primary school.
Girls were falling behind boys and needed particular attention. What Are The Three Essay. The report suggested that teachers were failing to spot children who were falling behind because they were not doing enough high-quality testing ( The Guardian 19 November 2008). A House of Lords committee report, The Cumulative Impact of Statutory Instruments on Schools , urged Ed Balls to stop deluging schools with new regulations. Members were told that in 2006-7 the DCSF and its national agencies produced over 760 documents aimed at about schools. 'No single part of the department was aware of the totality of what was being offered', the report said. Head teachers welcomed the report. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said a 'juggernaut of policies, laws and regulations hurtles at ever increasing speed towards us, seemingly out of three of a essay control'. Schools in England had been besieged by 79 policy consultations and at least 300 announcements from the money money essay, DCSF in 2008 and expected an even greater number in 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009). Dunford was also concerned that the government was promoting what he described as the what are the essay, 'Tesco model' of schools.
He told the ASCL's annual conference in trigger Birmingham that Ed Balls saw Whitehall as the company headquarters and heads and teachers as 'branch managers and shelf-fillers'. He went on: This Tesco management model of are the three parts England Schools plc . is save money essay, all summed up in that dreadful word 'compliance'. Compliance, I used to read in management books, is the lowest form of commitment, to be encouraged in what are the parts those who have no job flexibility, no initiative and limited intelligence. Is this what ministers really want of their school leaders? I sincerely hope not. Yet that is how it sometimes feels.
He said 'delivery' was the job of postal workers and midwives, not teachers and head teachers ( The Guardian 15 March 2009). Ofsted inspectors visited 37 schools to assess how well they had implemented the new secondary curriculum introduced in September 2008. Bens Homework. Four of the schools were judged to have done so 'outstandingly', 21 were deemed 'good', eight were 'satisfactory' and one was 'inadequate' ( The Guardian 25 June 2009). In 2007 the government had announced plans to introduce a single funding mechanism for what are the three of a, all nurseries, in miss essay the state and private sectors, for the free 12.5 hours of childcare it had promised to provide for all three and four year olds in three of a essay England. It now asked local authorities to confirm by america pageant essay April 2010 how they would meet that pledge for September, when the entitlement would rise to 15 hours. State nurseries had historically received far more funding than private ones, and head teachers warned that, with no extra money on offer, the result would be a large transfer of government funding from state nurseries to private ones run for profit ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). Ofsted visited 54 schools to what parts evaluate the effectiveness of the national literacy and numeracy strategies. It found that in more than half the secondary schools and a third of trigger point essay primary schools, the programme had not rooted out 'weaknesses in basic teaching skills'. Are The Three Parts Of A Essay. The concentration on English, maths and science had 'risked the neglect of other subjects' and essayist steele teachers and local authority officers felt burdened by the deluge of are the parts initiatives which accompanied the strategies.
Ed Balls had already announced that the subjects papers, national strategies would be scrapped as part of a move to end centralised control and promote more collaboration between schools ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). Summerhill, the famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) Suffolk independent boarding school where children decide how to spend their time, swearing is of a, allowed and, weather permitting, staff and academic subjects papers students can sunbathe in the nude, had had a long battle with the government. Are The. It had even been threatened with closure in bens homework 1999, when Ofsted gave it a scathing report. What Are The Three Of A Essay. The pupils were 'foul-mouthed' and the school had been guilty of 'mistaking idleness for personal liberty', inspectors said. But Ofsted's 2007 report on the school was glowing. 'Pupils' personal development, including their spiritual, moral, social and cultural development, is academic subjects, outstanding', the parts of a essay, inspectors concluded. Students were 'courteous, polite and considerate', made 'good progress' and were 'well-rounded, confident and mature' when they left ( The Guardian 1 December 2007). In December 2007 Ofsted announced plans to improve the system for monitoring classroom standards. From 2009 its inspectors would conduct 'snap visits' to schools without giving the normal 48 hours' notice and would make greater use of 'local intelligence' - complaints from parents - to essay investigate schools where standards were feared to be slipping ( The Guardian 13 December 2007). Chief inspector Christine Gilbert announced another shake-up of the inspection regime in February 2008.
She told the National Academies Conference in London that the best schools would only be visited once every six years while those which were satisfactory or worse could face annual inspections until they improved. She added that Ofsted would focus more on the 'shocking' number of what three essay pupils who left primary schools without mastering the three Rs ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). ULIE researchers said schools were manipulating the miss america, system of are the of a 'lighter touch' Ofsted inspections to exaggerate their success. Point. Self-evaluation forms, introduced in 2005, allowed head teachers to give rosy judgements of their success which inspectors then failed to investigate, they said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). In May 2008 Gilbert announced two further changes in the Ofsted inspection regime. First, she told the Commons education select committee that there would be more lesson observation, following criticism that Ofsted reports focused too much on what are the parts of a essay schools' test results and not enough on what was happening in the classroom. Essayist Steele. She also raised new concerns about poorly performing teachers, saying that it often took too long to 'get rid of them' ( The Guardian 15 May 2008). Then she unveiled reforms to Ofsted inspections designed to intensify pressure on what are the essay the lowest-performing and 'coasting' schools which were failing to pageant improve. Standards had 'stalled', she said, and 'the gap between outcomes for specific groups of children and young people and the majority remains too large' ( The Guardian 20 May 2008).
In August 2008 it was revealed that Ofsted was sending out letters to children as young as four setting out complaints about their schools. Three Essay. In some cases the letters had warned the children that their teachers were not preparing them properly for their 'future adult lives'. NASUWT general secretary Chris Keates said the letters were 'ill-conceived' and called for them to be scrapped. Bens Homework. 'These letters often over-simplify the outcomes of inspections and in what are the three of a essay doing so misrepresent the findings,' she said. 'The letters in effect give licence to pupils to question the professionalism of the school and its staff.' An Ofsted spokeswoman said the letters were 'a valuable tool in engaging pupils in both the inspection and subsequent school improvement' ( The Guardian 16 August 2008). In January 2009 Gilbert announced that Ofsted was to bens homework launch a crackdown on parts essay 'boring' teaching in miss essay response to concerns that children's behaviour was deteriorating because they were not being stimulated enough in are the three class. Inspectors would be told to advise struggling schools on what was going wrong in their lessons and why pupils were not paying attention, she said ( The Guardian 5 January 2009). Ofsted came under attack from children's services chiefs, head teachers' leaders and simple my family MPs.
It was accused of being 'flawed, wasteful and failing'. Its new inspection regime was forcing social work departments to focus on are the of a passing inspections instead of looking after children, good schools were rated as mediocre on routine technical matters and some sub-contracted inspectors were not fit for the job. Bens Homework. Former chief inspector Sir Mike Tomlinson suggested that Ofsted had been struggling to cope since its responsibilities had been expanded to include inspecting children's services as well as schools and childcare ( The Guardian 23 November 2009). Ofsted's annual report said there had been a sustained four-year increase in the number of schools rated good or outstanding, but that some schools were being held back by a 'stubborn core' of bad teachers who were failing to inspire their classes ( The Guardian 24 November 2009). The new head of the General Teaching Council (GTC), Keith Bartley, said around 17,000 'substandard' teachers were struggling in classrooms and are the essay failing to inspire their pupils. Middle-aged male teachers were a particular worry.
Teachers needed retraining throughout their careers to bens homework prevent them becoming disaffected, he said ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). NUT Conference March 2008. At their annual conference in Manchester NUT members threatened to are the essay strike if the government did not promise to cut classes to no more than twenty pupils by about my family 2020. They said large classes were putting some schools under intolerable pressures ( The Guardian 22 March 2008). The conference heard evidence of a crisis in children's happiness and mental health and of a debated calls to scrap the most restrictive elements of the national curriculum and about my family reverse a government order that literacy be taught through phonics.
NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said teachers wanted a system which was 'liberal and are the three of a flexible' and point essay not imposed by government. 'We want a return to a time when there was a potential for magic moments in the classroom', he said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). NUT members expressed concern about what parts research which showed that faith schools were fuelling social, ethnic and religious segregation and flouting admissions laws. Extraordinarily, their solution was to prevent the establishment of save money money more single-faith schools but to provide religious facilities - faith-based instruction, prayer rooms and visits by imams, rabbis and priests - in what of a all schools. Secularists were not impressed. Simple. National Secular Society director Keith Porteous Wood pointed out that a large majority of secondary school pupils said they were not religious. 'It's outrageous that a teaching union should be proposing to introduce religious instruction in schools', he said. Are The Three Of A Essay. 'If parents feel that strongly about religious instruction it should happen in the home or place of worship' ( The Guardian 25 March 2008). Members also voted to launch a campaign against military recruitment campaigns in schools.
The union said it had complained to Ed Balls that 'misleading propaganda' in some lesson materials prepared with Ministry of Defence (MoD) backing undermined schools' legal duty to present controversial issues in save or spend essay a balanced way. One worksheet supplied by the MoD said the British army was 'helping the what parts, Iraqis to save essay rebuild their country after the conflict and years of neglect'. It did not mention the what are the three parts essay, US-led invasion, the countless Iraqi civilian deaths or the fact that not a single weapon of pageant essay mass destruction had ever been found ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). NUT members staged a one-day strike on 24 April 2008 and warned that there would be more if the government did not improve its pay offer ( The Guardian 25 April 2008). Three. It was the first national NUT walk-out since 1987, when Margaret Thatcher was prime minister. The shortage of head teachers became an essay increasing concern during this period. In September 2008 one thousand schools started the new school year without a permanent head teacher. Teachers' leaders, already alarmed at are the three essay the growing number of trigger vacancies in both primary and secondary schools, were furious when it was revealed that the DCSF had drawn up a secret list of essay heads and simple essays about senior teachers who could be poached to run academies when positions arose ( The Observer 14 September 2008).
The annual survey of headship vacancies by are the parts of a essay Education Data Surveys (EDS) showed that England and Wales faced a chronic shortage of heads, despite Ј100,000 salaries being offered for save or spend money, some posts ( The Guardian 9 January 2009). Ed Balls told the School Teachers' Pay and Review Body (STRB) that he wanted schools to be free to decide what to pay head teachers who agreed to help lead struggling schools. He told parliament: To recognise the greater responsibility associated with running a number of schools, I will be encouraging governing bodies to make responsible use of the flexibilities that they already have to what of a determine an appropriate level of pay for these heads in a way that is not constrained by essayist steele the maximum of the leadership pay range but is appropriate, fair and transparent. These are interim arrangements while the STRB look in greater depth in the coming year at new pay arrangements for school leaders that will recognise and reward the vital contribution that they will make to the delivery of our vision of the twenty-first century school. ( The Guardian 23 June 2009) In January 2010 EDS reported that some secondary schools were now offering six-figure salaries, relocation packages and private health insurance, but were still finding it increasingly hard to recruit head teachers. Scores of what are the three of a essay posts were being filled by temporary and my family acting heads and one school in London had had to advertise six times. More than forty per cent of all secondary headships and 35 per cent of primary headships had had to be readvertised in are the of a 2009. John Howson, the former government adviser who conducted the study, said the shortage was deeply worrying. Bens Homework. 'The ease with which schools can recruit a head teacher is three of a essay, a key measure of the health of the profession,' he said ( The Guardian 28 January 2010). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the ATL heard the results of a survey of point behaviour in UK schools. Of the 800 teachers questioned, one in ten said they had been attacked and injured by violent pupils; three out of ten said they had experienced 'physical aggression'; three quarters said they had been threatened or insulted by a pupil. What Parts Of A Essay. Almost all reported problems with low-level disruption.
ATL general secretary Mary Bousted told the conference: 'No teacher should have to tolerate these unacceptable levels of poor pupil behaviour and certainly no one should be attacked in school' ( The Guardian 17 March 2008). Ed Balls announced that heads were to be granted new powers to search pupils for alcohol, drugs and stolen goods. He had asked Sir Alan Steer, who was carrying out academic a review of what three parts essay behaviour in schools, to draw up proposals to extend teachers' 'stop-and-search' rights. Heads already had the right to search pupils suspected of essayist steele carrying knives and had been given guidance on are the three parts of a essay how to use airport-style metal detectors to screen young people ( The Guardian 27 March 2008). The government published a white paper setting out save money money plans to reform the are the three parts essay, system of pupil referral units (PRUs) for essayist steele, disruptive pupils. What Are The Three Essay. Ј26.5m would be spent trialling new specialist centres which would be run by save money essay private companies, charities and academies, who would be allowed to what of a make a profit. Every child would have a tailored plan for improving their behaviour and school results, league tables for PRUs would be published, and all schools would be expected to take their 'fair share' of excluded pupils ( The Guardian 21 May 2008). The government announced that secondary schools and colleges in america pageant England would receive Ј720,000 over two years to train 'pupil mentors', who would learn how to defuse arguments through discussion and what are the three of a listen sensitively to classmates with family problems. Ministers said a pilot project of 3,600 pupils in 180 schools over the previous two years had been a success ( The Guardian 30 December 2008). Steer Report: Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned.
Commissioned by Ed Balls and published in April 2009, this was a follow-up to the Steer committee's first report Learning Behaviour which had been published in 2005. Steer said good teaching was a prerequisite for good behaviour: 'The need for consistent good quality teaching, as the basis for raising standards and reducing low level disruption, has been highlighted both by Ofsted and fellow practitioners' (DCSF 2009b:3). The report stressed: the importance of early intervention and trigger point of disseminating good practice advice to schools; appropriate engagement of and what are the three parts essay support for pageant essay, pupils, withdrawal from classes where appropriate; the what of a, engagement of parents should be supported and strengthened, with more consistent use of parenting contracts; the role of local authorities in prioritising support for schools and making provision for academic for research, excluded pupils; and three parts essay the roles of local authorities and children's trusts in relation to behaviour and essayist steele attendance partnerships. Download the 2009 Steer Report Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned (pdf text 2.1mb). Ed Balls launched a Ј3m scheme to train teenagers to counsel their younger schoolmates and offer 'conflict resolution' to tackle bullying ( The Guardian 15 November 2007). A British Council survey found that almost half of what UK secondary school pupils regarded bullying as a problem in their school - a higher proportion than in the rest of Europe. Save Money Essay. There was considerable variation between parts of the UK: the are the three parts of a, figure for England was 48 per cent, Scotland 43 per cent and Wales 32 per cent.
However, 42 per cent of UK students said they were happy in school most of the time compared with 33 per cent on bens homework average in the rest of Europe ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). A Stonewall survey of gay school students found that 41 per cent reported physical attacks and half said teachers themselves had made homophobic remarks. Parts Of A Essay. The DCSF issued new guidance to schools on preventing and essays dealing with homophobic bullying. Ed Balls said: 'We wanted to make sure that within the overall anti-bullying guidance there was specific guidance on what are the parts homophobic bullying' ( The Guardian 29 January 2008). An ATL survey showed that homophobic abuse was endemic in schools, with 'gay' the most commonly used insult in the classroom. There was a 'conspiracy of silence' in bens homework schools and colleges so that homophobia was seen as normal. Some teachers even feared becoming targets of abuse themselves if they challenged students' behaviour ( The Guardian 11 March 2008). Parents who withdrew their children from Gay History Month lessons at George Tomlinson primary school in Waltham Forest were told that their absences would be regarded as truanting. Parts Of A. A local council spokesperson said it was right that schools were tackling homophobia: Waltham Forest council wants to promote tolerance in our schools by teaching children everyone in our society is of equal value.
This is a core part of the national curriculum for all schools in the country. America Pageant Essay. We are supporting teachers and what three essay schools in simple taking positive and innovative steps to develop children's ability to are the three parts respect people's differences. A group of subjects papers rabid homophobes from a Baptist church in Kansas threatened to picket George Tomlinson school but their leader, Fred Phelps, was barred from entering Britain to what are the three essay stop him spreading 'extremism and hatred' ( The Guardian 20 March 2009). In March 2009 Stonewall published its Teachers' Report Homophobic bullying in Britain's schools as part of its Education for All campaign. Its key findings were that: nine in ten secondary school teachers and more than two in five primary school teachers said children and america pageant young people, regardless of their sexual orientation, experienced homophobic bullying, name calling or harassment in their schools; secondary school teachers said that homophobic bullying was the second most frequent form of bullying after bullying because of weight and what are the parts essay was three times more prevalent than bullying due to religion or ethnicity; 95 per cent of secondary school teachers and three quarters of primary school teachers reported hearing the phrases 'you're so gay' or 'that's so gay' in save money or spend their schools; eight in what are the parts essay ten secondary school teachers and two in five primary school teachers reported hearing other insulting homophobic remarks such as 'poof', 'dyke', 'queer' and 'faggot'; nine in essays my family ten teachers and are the three of a non-teaching staff at secondary and primary schools had never received any specific training on how to prevent or respond to homophobic bullying; more than a quarter of secondary school staff said they would not feel confident in supporting a pupil who decided to come out to them as lesbian, gay or bisexual; and half of secondary school teachers who were aware of homophobic bullying in their schools said the vast majority of pageant essay incidents went unreported. Download Homophobic bullying in Britain's schools from the what are the three of a essay, Stonewall website.
In 2007 Ofsted's annual report warned that social, economic and miss america pageant racial factors still determined how well children performed at school ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). A report by Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin for the Sutton Trust, Recent Changes in Intergenerational Mobility in what essay Britain , published in December 2007, showed that by the age of seven the academic subjects papers, most able children in Britain's poorest homes were outperformed by the least gifted children from wealthy homes. It concluded that social class was still the biggest predictor of school achievement, the likelihood of getting a degree and even a child's behaviour; and suggested that the advantages of being born in a privileged home had not changed in thirty years. Research conducted at Bath University by Harry Daniels and Jill Porter for what three parts, the Cambridge Primary Review showed that a child's chances of essayist steele receiving extra help for a special educational need was dictated by geography, class, race and gender, rather than the nature of the learning difficulty. Middle class children received better support more quickly, and powerful lobby groups, such as those for dyslexia and autism, received disproportionate levels of funding. The system of 'statementing' children and what are the of a essay allocating resources allowed for wide variations ( The Guardian 14 December 2007). A government-backed study by Dr Steve Strand at Warwick University found that white working-class teenagers performed worse than their black and Asian classmates in GCSE exams ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Thursday's Child , a report by the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), a think-tank close to the government, recommended that the long summer holiday should be shortened. Money Essay. It said children from the what three parts essay, poorest backgrounds suffered most from 'summer learning loss' and that youth offending rose during the summer when children had less access to structured activities ( The Observer 25 May 2008).
A study on social mobility, funded by the American Carnegie Corporation and presented at save money or spend a private conference in are the three of a essay New York hosted by the Sutton Trust, was attended by save money or spend money leading UK education figures and politicians including Cabinet Office minister Ed Miliband. The research used data from 10,000 children in the US and 19,000 children in the UK born in 2000 and 2001. It found that children's vocabulary, cognitive abilities and behaviour were closely linked to family income, with children from the are the three of a, poorest homes much less well equipped to deal with starting school. Bens Homework. The effects of being from a low-income home were more pronounced in what three parts of a the UK than the US because of the UK's wider difference in incomes ( The Guardian 7 June 2008). Meanwhile, politicians traded statistics. A Tory party publication, A Failed Generation , claimed that the education gap between rich and poor had widened under Labour. Schools minister Jim Knight presented an alternative analysis of the achievement gap which showed it had narrowed since 1997 ( The Guardian 8 August 2008). A report published by the Cabinet Office's strategy unit, Getting On, Getting Ahead , suggested that initiatives introduced over the past ten years - predominantly in early years and primary education - were beginning to pay off. Pageant Essay. Family background, it said, was now less important to the academic success of 15 year olds than it had been for the same age group born in 1970.
In particular, Bangladeshi pupils had risen from being the lowest performers to being above average. Tory shadow work and what three of a pensions secretary Chris Grayling dismissed the trigger, report. 'This has all the hallmarks of a government propaganda exercise', he said. What Parts Of A. 'The reality in Britain today is that we have some of the lowest social mobility in the industrialised world.' Writing in The Guardian , John Crace argued that 'the truth lies between the two': There have been significant improvements in trigger essay raising attainment levels in some areas, particularly among minority ethnic groups, but one large section of the population has missed out on the decade of rising standards - the white working class. What Parts Essay. (Crace 2008) He noted the findings of a report commissioned by the NUT and the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) and written by Denis Mongon and Chris Chapman at Manchester University's school of education. Successful Leadership for miss pageant essay, Promoting the what of a essay, Achievement of White Working Class Pupils argued that the cycle of save money or spend underachievement had been endemic in this group since mass education was introduced in Victorian times. Mongon said: After more than a century of free, compulsory education and sixty years of the welfare state, family income and status are by far the most significant correlates of success in the school system. Are The Of A Essay. Although gender is also an independent and significant factor, the social class attainment gap at 16 is essayist steele, three times as wide as the gender gap. What Are The Three Parts Essay. (quoted in Crace 2008) The government's aim to close the about my family, social gap in exam results was certainly proving difficult to achieve. What Three Parts Essay. In 2008, just 16 per cent of white boys on free school meals reached the target of five good GCSEs including English and maths, compared with the national average of 48 per miss pageant cent ( The Guardian 12 December 2008). Figures released in parliament showed that a million children living below the what are the, poverty line were not receiving free school meals because the income threshold to qualify was lower than the current level used to define poverty. A family of two adults and two children with an income of trigger point essay Ј18,000 a year had to pay for school dinners at an average cost of Ј1.70 a day per child. Liberal Democrat education spokesman David Laws said: 'For the most disadvantaged children, a school dinner can be the are the three parts of a essay, only hot meal they get.
As times get tough, paying for school lunches is going to be a real struggle for more and more families' ( The Guardian 16 December 2008). Since 1988, parents in England had had the right to express a school preference. Successive governments believed this would force under-performing schools to improve. But in Parental choice of money or spend essay primary school in England: What type of schools do parents choose? , academics at Bristol University and ULIE argued that parental choice had fuelled class segregation ( The Guardian 20 November 2009). Rose Hill Primary School in Oxford abandoned its policy of using only halal meat in its school meals after complaints from parents ( The Oxford Times 20 February 2008). A survey by the School Food Trust, set up by ministers in 2005 to encourage children to eat healthier food, found that secondary schools had, on average, 23 fast-food outlets within a mile of their buildings.
The Trust suggested that, to prevent pupils from what three buying junk food, schools should not allow them to leave the miss pageant essay, premises at parts of a essay lunchtime. School leaders said the proposal was unworkable ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Health secretary Alan Johnson announced plans for a Ј20m pilot scheme to provide every child with free school meals in two local authorities. If the essays about my family, two-year trial improved health, school standards, pupils' behaviour and take-up of school meals, it could be expanded to every local authority, he said ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). Catering firms belonging to the Local Authority Caterers Association warned the government that new rules on three parts of a schools meals due to come into my family, force in secondary schools in are the three parts of a essay September 2009 would lead to even more pupils deserting canteens for fast-food outlets and could make the school meals service no longer viable ( The Guardian 23 March 2009). Five years after the money essay, outcry over 'Turkey Twizzlers', led by TV chef Jamie Oliver, the Food for Life Partnership warned that progress towards healthier school meals would stall if budgets for what are the three of a essay, ingredients were cut ( The Guardian 15 December 2009). The global recession, which began in 2008, forced governments around the world to review their spending.
Britain was no exception. In a sign of money or spend money things to come, Ed Balls urged schools to save Ј750m a year by turning off lights, cutting back on what are the of a heating and simple essays about my family sharing cleaners. Savings needed to be made now, he said, to safeguard front-line services in the future ( The Guardian 26 November 2009). The message was reiterated three months later at what three of a essay a conference run by the NCSL, only this time heads were asked to make 'efficiency' savings of Ј1bn without reducing front-line staff. The government was promising a 0.7 per cent real-terms increase in funding for schools, but because of bens homework a rise in what are the three of a essay pupil numbers, a further 0.9 per cent would be needed to maintain the status quo. NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said it would be difficult for heads to find Ј1bn without threatening front-line staff: teaching assistants could be particularly vulnerable ( The Observer 7 February 2010). In October 2007 the government published new guidelines on school uniforms. Schools minister Jim Knight said: I strongly support school uniforms and would like all schools to adopt them. They can instil pride and unity, support a strong school ethos and prevent the jealousy, rivalry and conflict that can arise when children wear different clothes.
But the cost of uniforms must never be a barrier for poorer families. ( The Guardian 5 October 2007) The only dedicated university course for Steiner school teachers had struggled to recruit new students since the government cut funding for second degrees. In November 2009 Plymouth University announced it would not be admitting any more students to academic subjects for research papers the three-year course ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). Within a week of becoming prime minister in 2007 Gordon Brown had surprised universities by three parts essay promising to increase the number of students eligible for grants. The pledge had been welcomed by students as a sign that the bens homework, new prime minister was serious about Labour's target of getting half of young people into three parts of a, university by 2010. But by December 2008 ministers had been forced to essayist steele introduce a cap on places after discovering a Ј200m black hole in essay their finances. This meant that for autumn 2009 there would be 3,000 extra full-time university places - the largest number in america essay history, but not enough to what three keep up with the surge in demand ( The Guardian 20 August 2009). In November 2009 Lord Mandelson (whose Department of subjects Business, Innovation and Skills had assumed responsibility for are the essay, higher education in June) launched A New Framework for academic for research papers, Higher Education which set out what three of a essay a ten to fifteen year strategy for universities, designed to miss pageant aid the what are the parts of a, country's economic recovery and pave the way for an overhaul of academic subjects for research student tuition fees. Its key points were: a 'consumer revolution' to give students more information about courses and future earnings potential; a drive to make universities work more closely with industry in what designing courses and funding them; and a new focus on pageant universities as engines of social mobility, encouraging the use of 'contextual data' in selection processes to three of a identify hidden talent among pupils from low-performing schools. ( The Guardian 3 November 2009) The election campaign.
In the summer of 2009 the bens homework, date of the forthcoming general election had not yet been announced but most commentators assumed (rightly) that it would be in May 2010. As far as education was concerned, however, the first skirmishes in the battle were already under way. The Centre for Policy Studies, a right-wing think-tank, recommended that a Conservative government should abolish at what three essay least eight quangos, including the bens homework, Qualifications and are the of a Curriculum Authority, the exams regulator Ofqual, the Training and Development Agency for Schools and the National College for money or spend essay, School Leadership. Ofsted should remain, but would be limited to inspecting only schools seriously below the standard expected of them ( The Guardian 13 August 2009; BBC News 13 August 2009). Shadow schools secretary Michael Gove announced that he would build technical schools in what are the parts every city to train a new generation of builders, technicians and engineers - a plan developed by essayist steele former Conservative education secretary Lord (Kenneth) Baker.
Labour pointed out that it was already doing just that: the DCSF had approved a technical school in Birmingham, to what are the three be sponsored by trigger point Aston University, and had provided officials to what are the three essay work with Baker on expanding the essayist steele, scheme ( The Guardian 5 October 2009). Gove's view of education. Gove's technical schools policy was a throwback to the 1950s, but there was worse to what are the parts of a come. He upset the teaching unions - and just about everybody else involved in education - by essay promising to destroy the 'educational establishment' he claimed was responsible for what three parts, 'dumbing down' schools. He told the Conservative Party conference that he would sideline local authorities, scrap the curriculum agency, sack the worst head teachers, have fewer Ofsted inspections for good schools, encourage competitive sports, and insist on academic subjects for research papers traditional values in the classroom, with former soldiers imposing discipline and of a pupils expected to wear ties. The state monopoly over schools would be abolished by simple essays allowing every school the three parts of a essay, chance to become an independent academy with greater control over the curriculum, the trigger point, pay of three of a teachers and the organisation of the school day ( The Guardian 7 October 2009).
The following day, Tory leader David Cameron backed Gove's plans and added that a Conservative government would encourage companies to run state schools for profit, and promote 'discipline, setting by ability and regular sport' ( The Guardian 8 October 2009). Gove's accusation that a culture of trigger point 'defeatism and political correctness' had dumbed down education cost him support throughout England's schools. In a letter to The Guardian , the head of the ASCL and 26 leading head teachers wrote: As leaders of what are the parts of a state secondary schools, and therefore presumably fully paid-up members of the or spend money, 'educational establishment' to which Michael Gove referred in his speech to the Conservative party conference, we would like to challenge the image of the state education sector portrayed in that speech. 'Faddy ideologies' have been resisted by schools. Three. Recent years have seen a strong focus on raising the quality of teaching and learning, increasing the bens homework, number of young people who achieve well, improving their behaviour and broadening their opportunities and life chances. This is what we understand as progressive education, in contrast to the pejorative way in which that term is are the parts, sometimes used. Essays About My Family. ( The Guardian 12 October 2009) John White, emeritus professor of the philosophy of education at ULIE, took Gove to task over the curriculum proposals in the Tory draft education manifesto. Writing in what are the three parts of a essay the TES he said: 'For him, there is bens homework, only one vehicle to of a get us to these destinations: the traditional school subject. He sets his face against everything else. Cross-curricular teaching is out. Bens Homework. Projects and themes are anathemas.' Under a Tory government, there would be no regrouping of subjects into wider 'areas of learning' as recommended in the Rose review of the primary curriculum. Subjects like maths, science and what are the of a essay history were the only way forward. 'It's a pity that the miss, schooling on which Mr Gove so dotes did not free him from the are the parts, fetters of black-and-white thinking', White argued.
And he concluded: Since 1997 we have broken away from the rigidities of Ken Baker's original national curriculum. Not fast enough for many of us, perhaps, but in the right direction. Mr Gove would wind the essays about my family, clock back to the 1988 curriculum, itself a virtual copy of the curriculum for what are the three essay, the new state secondary schools introduced in 1904. This is pageant essay, conservatism indeed.
But is this creation of a horse-drawn, narrowly franchised, imperial age the beacon we should be following a century and what are the parts of a essay more later? (White 2010) Professor Michael Bassey was equally dismissive of Gove's view of education. In a letter to The Guardian (30 March 2010) he noted that Gove wanted to see children 'sitting in academic rows and rote learning'. Gove had told one newspaper that 'the best training of the mind' would be 'learning the kings and of a essay queens of England, the great works of literature, proper mental arithmetic, algebra by the age of 11, modern foreign languages'. Yet he'd also said that 'A Conservative government would . free teachers and leaders in schools from bureaucracy to give them more space to innovate, to excel, and by excelling, to save money money essay inspire others.' Bassey commented: 'The freedom that the Conservatives offer seems to be the freedom to what are the parts of a essay spend the next ten years teaching the chronology of the monarchy to children sitting in straight lines'. Meanwhile, David Cameron accused 'failing' schools of pandering to a culture of defeatism and 'dumbing down to trigger essay the lowest common denominator'. He said a Tory government would sack the heads of the worst-performing schools within a hundred days ( The Guardian 25 April 2010). Gove's other big idea was to what three of a essay establish up to 2,000 Swedish-style 'free schools' - independent schools run by or for or spend, parents but paid for by the what three parts essay, state. Academic Subjects. He had first proposed these in September 2008. 'We have seen the of a, future in Sweden and it works', he declared. Subjects For Research. 'Standards have been driven up. If it can work there, it can work here.' He had gone on to make the policy a key feature of the Tory election campaign, but it was widely criticised.
Per Thulberg, director general of the Swedish National Agency for Education, said the free schools had 'not led to better results' in Sweden. Of A. He told the BBC's Newsnight programme that where the point essay, free schools had improved results, it was because the are the three parts of a essay, pupils they admitted had 'better backgrounds' than those who attended the schools they had replaced. Furthermore, recent international studies had shown that England was ranked higher than Sweden for pupils' maths and science knowledge and in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Sweden's ranking for science had fallen further than any other country's ( The Guardian 9 February 2010). Stephen Ball, professor of the sociology of education at ULIE, said Tory plans for more academies and free schools amounted to the breaking up of the model of state education which had operated in England since 1902: It's a process of the dissolution of essay state schooling. It was Labour that introduced legislation under which people could set up their own schools. This is taking it a step further and three essay opening it up to more diverse providers being able to bens homework set up schools.
This is the what are the three parts, beginning of the end of state schools as we know them. ( The Guardian 2 March 2010) Two local authority leaders joined in the criticism. Kent County Council leader Paul Carter said giving parents and other groups the essayist steele, funds to start free schools would threaten local education budgets, and Hampshire's cabinet member responsible for schools, David Kirk, insisted that local authorities should be allowed to improve existing schools rather than being forced to give parents the power to are the parts of a essay set up new ones. Leading education lawyer Graham Burns, who was acting for three parent groups trying to set up schools in anticipation of a Conservative administration, told The Guardian that parents from from poor neighbourhoods would be unable to set up their own schools because they lacked money and influential friends ( The Guardian 26 April 2010). And finally, just four days before the election, it was revealed that one of the first state schools to take on a private partner had had to be 'rescued' by academic subjects for research papers its local council after it was deemed inadequate by inspectors. What Parts Essay. This was an embarrassment for Gove because Kings International College, run by 3Es Enterprises, was in his Camberley constituency and because it highlighted potential problems with his free schools plan.
Local Liberal Democrat councillor David Whitcroft commented: 'Michael Gove has been talking about what is academic subjects for research papers, going on in Sweden; it might be more useful if he looked at what is going on are the in his own constituency' ( The Observer 2 May 2010). Determined to show that he could come up with equally loony ideas, Gordon Brown announced that parents would be allowed to vote on whether to get rid of the leadership of their child's school and have it converted into an academy run by a university, a business or another state school. These 'sponsors' - the first to be named was carpet shop owner Lord Harris - would be allowed to or spend money run chains of poorly performing primary schools. Teachers dismissed the idea as 'an impractical and unworkable election gimmick' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). As the what three essay, general election approached, Robin Alexander noted that there was 'a great deal of miss essay unfinished business' in relation to primary education: The Rose proposals for three, the primary curriculum have disappeared in the pre-election legislative wash-up, leaving schools confused and frustrated. The long-running SATs conflict is heading for its high noon. Rumblings continue about inspection. The national strategies have come and point essay are about to go, leaving an uncertain legacy. A growing appetite for genuine and lasting reform competes with teachers' understandable longing for a period of stability after 13 years of what are the three of a essay constant change. (Alexander 2010) With the essay, Labour government having rejected the recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review, and the Tories highly unlikely to three parts adopt them, he appealed directly to teachers to take forward the Review's agenda and announced the launch of a network supporting those who were keen to build on the report 'and in many cases have begun to do so': Many of the priorities we nominate will be advanced only if teachers, and the communities they serve, seize the simple about my family, opportunity and the evidence provided by initiatives such as the Cambridge Primary Review, and use them to debate the central educational questions which too often go by default: what primary education is what three, for; what constitutes an enabling and essays about my family balanced curriculum; how research on learning and teaching can be translated into classroom practice that fully engages every child; in what kinds of decisions about their lives and learning young children can or should be involved; how educational quality and standards should be defined and assessed; and how - individually and in three essay partnership - schools should be organised. Bens Homework. (Alexander 2010)
The general election was held on Thursday 6 May 2010. Are The Three Parts Essay. There was no overall winner, and after several days of anxious negotiations between the parties, Gordon Brown resigned on 11 May and the Queen invited David Cameron to form a coalition government of Tories and Liberal Democrats. For an analysis of the party manifestos and the policies of the new coalition government, see my article Hobson's Choice: education policies in save money or spend essay the 2010 general election (2010). Summary of the are the three of a, period. What are we to make of education in England under Ed Balls? It's a very mixed picture.
On the positive side, he is to be commended for his undoubted commitment to improving the lot of the america, nation's children, particularly those from poorer families. The Children's Plan was, as we have seen, an ambitious attempt to take a holistic view of the lives and prospects of children and to what are the three of a bring some much-needed coherence to policy-making by drawing together all the government departments and trigger point agencies which impinged upon them. This approach was refreshingly new. He was very opposed to selection for what of a, secondary education and took steps to prevent schools - especially faith schools - from covertly selecting pupils from more affluent backgrounds. Bens Homework. He was also determined to crack down on homophobic bullying in schools. On the negative side, it is to are the three be regretted that he was so adamantly committed to maintaining the indefensible testing and league tables regime in England's schools, in simple essays the face of widespread hostility from parents, teachers and governors, and despite clear evidence of the damage it was causing, not least to the children themselves. It is also regrettable that he was content to ignore the wishes of parents and teachers by continuing to are the parts essay increase the number of america pageant academies and are the of a essay trust schools, and simple essays my family that, despite his obvious concerns about faith schools, he was apparently happy to see their numbers grow too. His decision to what parts of a essay force faith schools to teach sex education properly was welcome. His capitulation in the face of religious lobbying was not. And finally, like many politicians he talked much about returning decision-making to save money money essay schools and local communities. Essay. So it's odd that he still insisted on, for miss america pageant essay, example, compelling schools to what are the three parts essay use a particular method of teaching reading - 'synthetic phonics' - against the advice of the america essay, world's experts in the teaching of reading.
But then politicians - of whatever party - never allow the evidence to cloud their judgement. Alexander RJ (ed) (2009b) Children, their World, their Education Final Report and Recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review London: Routledge. Crace J (2008) 'Long division' The Guardian 11 November. CSFC (2009) National Curriculum: Fourth Report of Session 2008-09 Volume 1 HC 344-I House of Commons Children Schools and Families Committee London: TSO. DCSF (2007) The Children's Plan Building brighter futures Cm 7280 London: HMSO.
DCSF (2009b) Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned A review of behaviour standards and practices in our schools Nottingham: DCSF. Mansell W (2009a) 'Big brothers' The Guardian 2 June. Wilby P (2008) 'Jim'll fix it' The Guardian 5 August.
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A Christmas Carol Summary and Analysis of are the of a Stave Three. Scrooge awakes when the bell strikes one, and essayist steele is immediately prepared for the second Ghost#39;s arrival. After a while, he sees a light come from the adjacent room. Are The Parts? A strange voice tells him to enter, and when he does, he sees his room has been decked out with Christmas decorations and a feast. Subjects Papers? A giant ghost introduces himself as the what of a essay Ghost of Christmas Present and tells Scrooge to academic for research papers, touch his robe. Of A? When he does, they are transported to the streets on Christmas morning where, despite the save essay gloomy weather, people frolic joyously in the snow as shopkeepers pass out delicious food. The people carry their dinners off with them and occasionally bump each other accidentally and argue. When the Ghost sprinkles a few drops of water from his torch on them, however, peace is restored. The Ghost transports Scrooge to the modest house of Bob Cratchit. Three Parts Of A Essay? His family, dressed in its best clothing, waits for Bob to return from church before they eat dinner.
He comes in with his small, crippled son, Tiny Tim. They discuss Tiny Tim#39;s good heart and his growing strength, then have a wonderful dinner. Pageant? When Scrooge asks, the Ghost informs him that, unless the future is altered, Tiny Tim will die. At the dinner, Mrs. Cratchit curses Scrooge, but her husband reminds her that it is Christmas. The Ghost brings Scrooge to three essay, a number of other happy Christmas dinners in trigger point essay, the city, as well as to celebrations in a miner#39;s house, a lighthouse, and on a ship. What Are The? Scrooge is then taken to his nephew Fred#39;s house, where Fred tells his pretty wife and his sisters he feels sorry for Scrooge, since his miserly, hateful nature deprives him of pleasure in life.
Scrooge#39;s niece plays a tune on the harp, which softens Scrooge#39;s heart. Bens Homework? Scrooge even joins in for some of their games, though they are not aware of his ghostly presence. The Ghost pulls Scrooge away from the games to a number of other Christmas scenes, all joyful despite the often meager environments. As they travel, the Ghost ages and what three essay says his life is essay short?he will die at midnight. A boy and girl, looking ragged, unhealthy, and impoverished, crawl out from his robes.
The Ghost tells Scrooge they are named Ignorance and Want. He tells him to beware of them, especially the boy, on whose brow is written doom. He encourages Scrooge to deny Ignorance in himself and others. When Scrooge asks if the children have no refuge, the Ghost answers with Scrooge#39;s previous words?#39;Are there no prisons? ?Are there no workhouses?#39; The bell strikes twelve, the Ghost disappears, and Scrooge sees a new phantom, solemn and robed, approach. We have seen little attention paid to the religious ceremony of Christmas.
Instead, Dickens focuses on the celebratory nature of Christmas while the Christian ideals of love and sacrifice are underscored. Lavish descriptions of large dinners and raucous accounts of what are the parts games dominate this stave, since eating and essayist steele playing imply pleasure for both the individual and the community. Dickens wants to show that giving does not deplete the giver, but rather enriches him. The set piece of the stave is the Cratchit family dinner. Love trumps poverty in Dickens#39;s sentimental portrait of the Cratchits, but he adds a dark note at the end when he reveals Tiny Tim will die unless the future is changed. Another foreshadowed element is the Doom written across the Ignorant boy#39;s brow. In both cases, the what three of a Ghost suggests that Scrooge has a stake in changing the future. A Christmas Carol, then, celebrates the potentiality for redemption in everyone, promotes the idea that it is about my family never too late to learn to love, and elevates the importance of three of a free will. Miss Essay? By doing so, Dickens provides hope for English Victorian society to close the chasm between the Haves and Have-Nots and what are the parts essay overturn the unjust Poor Laws that keep the underclass enchained.
The Ghost#39;s brief life span of one day also reminds Scrooge, and the reader, that we must act quickly if we are to change the present. Unlike before, when Scrooge was concerned with the present only insofar as it was related to the transaction of money, he is starting to see it in seize the day terms?as an opportunity to change the lives of the miss america less fortunate, right now. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-christmas-carol/study-guide/summary-stave-three in MLA Format. What? Study Guide Navigation About A Christmas Carol A Christmas Carol Summary Character List Themes Summary And Analysis Stave One Stave Two Stave Three Stave Four Stave Five Related Links Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store Charles Dickens Biography.
A Christmas Carol Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for A Christmas Carol is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. I can't find the exact part you are referring to. I assume the apprentices sleep at Fezziwigg's business so they can save money. Scrooge sees the poor Cratchit familt trying to make the best of Christmas. Essayist Steele? Then up rose Mrs Cratchit, Cratchit's wife, dressed out but poorly in a twice-turned gown, but brave in three parts essay, ribbons, which are cheap and make a goodly show for bens homework, sixpence; and.
Scrooge does not initially embrace the Christmas celebration. He sees it as a waste of time, money, and energy. time abetter spent working and making a living. Are The Three Of A? For Scrooge, Christmas is an academic subjects for research, unnecessary inconvenience. Are The Three? Study Guide for A Christmas Carol. A Christmas Carol study guide contains a biography of Charles Dickens, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and america essay a full summary and analysis. A Christmas Carol literature essays are academic essays for citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of are the A Christmas Carol. Lesson Plan for A Christmas Carol. A Christmas Carol E-Text contains the full text of bens homework A Christmas Carol.
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Free Essays on The Birth Of Venus. Birth of venus Birth of what are the of a essay, Venus View Full Essay ART 111 Kayce Anderson Writing Assignment #8 The work that I have chosen from Chapter 19 is Thomas Cole’s The Oxbow (Connecticut River near Northampton) (1836) on page 462. Principles of bens homework, Design: • The focal point of the painting is the sun-drenched. Aphrodite vs. Are The Parts! Birth of Venus Throughout the history of art the human form has captured artisans and their audiences. While the human form has always been acceptable in art, the nude female form continues to stir up controversy. Praxiteles was a famous artist during the Greek late classical period.
?Ciera Callahan Art History II 10-20-13 Sfakianos The piece that I chose to write about is entitled The Birth of Venus and was painted by the French artist Nicolas Poussin. This painting was sold to Catherine the Great of Russia in 1771. It was sold another time by the Hermitage Museum in 1932 when. Works of point essay, Venus Sandro Botticelli created the beautiful, captivating, and norm breaking Birth of Venus . It depicts the story of the goddess Venus , having emerged from the three parts of a essay sea as a full grown woman arriving at the shore. Painted in 1486, and subjects with the medium of tempera on canvas, The Birth of Venus hangs.
F. The Birth of Venus was created on canvas with the use of tempera paint. Botticelli would hand grind a material that changes according to what are the of a the light that it reflects, also known as pigment. The powdered pigments are traditionally mixed with egg yolk. there are a few things society could do to prevent it. Excessive teenage pregnancy could be controlled with appropriate media, more readily available birth control, and people to academic subjects for research papers set good examples for young women. What Are The Parts Of A Essay! Just flipping through the channels on a Saturday afternoon you can see all sorts of bens homework, inappropriate. ? The Birth of a Nation Denethri Arbor Ashford University ENG 225 Introduction to Film Instructor: Jennifer Wiesman April 7, 2014 THE BIRTH OF A NATION The movie under critique is what are the three essay, “The Birth of a Nation”, written and for research directed by D.W. Griffith. What Are The Three Parts Of A! The film. the gods (and father to many) and essayist steele god of weather, law and what are the three of a fate • Hera (Juno): the queen of the gods and goddess of women and marriage • Aphrodite ( Venus ): goddess of beauty and love • Apollo (Apollo): god of prophesy, music and poetry and knowledge • Ares (Mars): god of war • Artemis (Diana): goddess.
principal scientist Bernard Foing. Photo Credit: Leslie Mullen The Earth has a large moon, making it unique in the inner solar system. Mercury and Venus have no moons, and save or spend essay Mars has only two small asteroid-sized objects orbiting it. In this essay, the are the of a essay father of the essays about my family SMART-1 lunar mission, Bernard Foing. The Birth of Venus by are the parts Sandro Boticelli Visual Elements * Line * The main type of lines that are used in the Birth of Venus are mostly actual lines. The way they are used by the artist is to form specific shapes to tell a story about the goddess Venus . Miss Pageant Essay! There are a few implied lines are.
Compare/Contrast Essay; Venus of Urbino vs. Nymph of the are the three essay Spring. In the trigger point following words one will compare and contrast the visual elements and of a essay symbolism of Titian’s Venus of Urbino 1538 oil on canvas and Lucas Cranach’s Nymph of the Spring 1537 oil on panel. Both works were created during the High renaissance period. They both depict sensual and provocative reclining. men are from mars, women are from about, venus. ? “Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus : Differences in Character” There are a lot of books nowadays about the what of a essay characters of men and women. Academic Papers! One of them is“Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus ” by John Gray was a bestseller of 2012. I haven’t read this book but I’m going to what are the essay share with. THE BIRTH OF VENUS BY BOTTICELLI AND VENUS BY ERRO The Birth of Venus consist of a Mythological Roman Goddess, Venus , the Goddess of Love and Beauty who is standing nude on a large seashell that has been drifted to shore from the sea. She is for research, placed in the middle of the painting which causes the audience's.
different and unique. What Parts Essay! One of those things and probably the most important is birth order. Birth order is defined as the rank by trigger point essay age among your siblings and birth order personality is the what are the traits which you acquired based on simple essays about, your birth order. According to Frank Sulloway, author of Born to Rebel, a child’s personality. Venus of of a essay, Willendorf: An Annotated Bibliography. ?Professor Weber ARH2050 Venus of Willendorf: An Annotated Bibliography Witcombe, C. 2003. “Women in Prehistory: The Venus of Willendorf” http://www.asu.edu/cfa/wwwcourses/art/SOACore/Willendorf_portfolio.htm Witecombe’s article was useful in describing the material the figure was carved from. carried off other lovers, including Cephalus, who became the husband of Procris in Athenian saga (see M/L, Chapter 23). CASTRATION OF URANUS AND THE BIRTH OF APHRODITE Uranus hated his children, and as they were about to be born he hid them in the depths of Gaia, the mother earth. The mythic image is.
as well. The “prison” is described as being of point, incomparable beauty and decorated with poetic images, “The room was painted with images all around / Venus the goddess of love / Was skillfully depicted in the painting / Her neture and her traits were illustrated (…)” (36). The lady was indeed alone, isolated. artists “belonged” to their patrons in this era, Renaissance arts often reflected the values of the patrons rather than the artists’ viewpoint. Birth of Venus (1482) by Botticelli and are the three parts David (1430) by Donatello (both Italian Renaissance artists) expressed sensual postures derived from their patron’s paganistic. Clockwise from upper left, examples of the four elements: 1. a self-portrait from Vincent van Gogh, 2. an African Chokwe statue, 3. detail from the Birth of trigger essay, Venus by Sandro Botticelli and 4. a Japanese Shisa lion Vincent Willem van Gogh, (the artist of the Self- Portrait) was born the parts 30th of March 1853. The Birth of Venus is a painting familiar especially to those who know about mythology. Sandro Botticelli wanted to show the essayist steele birth of what three parts essay, venus one of the Greek gods in his own point of view. He demonstrates this by how he painted Venus and whom he painted in the drawing with Venus . Academic For Research Papers! He also shows it by the. plays included the three parts of Henry VI, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, and Titus Andronicus.
Shakespeare's first printed works were two long poems, Venus and Adonis (1593) and what parts of a The Rape of essay, Lucrece (1594). These were both dedicated to the Earl of Southampton, a young courtier and what are the parts of a essay favourite of Queen Elizabeth. The Birth of Venus is bens homework, probably the most famous of what are the three essay, Botticelli's paintings (not least due to good advertising by Adobe ;)) and for essayist steele many people it is the symbol of Medici Florentine art. The origin and patron of the three of a essay painting are unknown, but by the 16th century it could be found together with the Primavera. Midwife's Role in money or spend, Promting Normal Birth. recognised and accountable professional whose role is to work in partnership with women to provide the necessary support, care and advice during pregnancy, birth and the postnatal period. Her role encompasses many facets, including facilitating normal childbirth, enabling women to make informed choices about. Name: The Tribute MoneyBook Image Number: 14.7 Artist: DonatelloTitle Name: DavidBook Image Number: 14.13 Artist: BotticelliTitle of Work: The Birth of three of a, VenusBook Image Number: 14.16 Artist: BrunelleschiTitle of money money essay, Work: Dome of the what are the three Florence CathedralBook of Image Number: NONE High Italian Renaissance: . Art Analysis: Statue of Venus, and Woman and Her Attendant. Meliksetian Art 101 August 7, 2013 The two art works that I’m going to be talking about are Statue of miss america pageant, Venus (the Mazarin Venus ), and Gravestone with a Woman and Her Attendant. The Statue of Venus is from the what parts essay Roman culture, it’s located in the room called The Art of the Trojan War.
It’s located in the. and she was 26 and was most likely pregnant with her first child. Susanna. Susanna was baptized on May 26, 1583. About two years later, Anne gave birth yet again, this time to twins, Hamnet and Judith. They were baptized on February 2, 1585. Shakespeare arrived in London in trigger, 1591, when he was 27. ? The Traumas of Child Birth Frankenstein April 17, 2015 DeVry University The Traumas of Child Birth and Frankenstein The most beautiful experience a women can be a part of in life is supposed to what three of a be child birth . Bringing another life into this world through a. The Birth of Venus-Sandro Botticelli-Critical Study. Botticelli has created this Tempura on canvas painting , it measures 172.5 x 278.5cm and is located in the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence .The Birth of Venus belongs to the renaissance period and is not a representation of a Christian legend but an interpretation of miss america pageant, a classical Myth. This painting is.
Analytical Analysis of Sandro Botticelli Birth of are the essay, Venus. Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus . The Birth of simple essays about, Venus painted by Sandro Botticelli from 1484-1486, depicts the birth of Venus into the world. The painting shows Venus the goddess of love and beauty coming out of the three parts of a sea as if she was coming into the human world as a beautiful woman. She is nude in. of Henry VIII), the works ascribed to Shakespeare are his. III. Birth and Early Life Parish records establish that William Shakespeare was baptized on 26 April, 1564. Simply counting backwards the three customary days between birth and baptism in Anglican custom, most reckon that the Bard of Avon. The Transmogrification of Venus to Mary in the Works of Sandro Botticelli. Pierfrancesco de' Medici, Botticelli was hugely popular in his own day.
His most magnificent work, the Primavera, as well as The Birth of Venus , Camilla and the Centaur, and Mars and Venus contain entirely mythological figures whose significances have been debated by various art historians for centuries. Born. Your Chinese zodiac sign: Monkey Your zodiac sign : Aries Your element : Fire Your planet: Mars Your colour: Red Your stone: Ruby Your birth number 8 MONKEY -1920-1932-1944-1956-1968-1980-1992-2004- You are a delightful person who never misses a trick and who, despite an undeniable. The Birth of Venus Alexandra Smith In Sandros Boticelli’s, The Birth of Venus , there were several different types of lines noticeable in the painting. Bens Homework! There are actual lines to illustrate simple birds, and curved lines showing the edges of the shell. Three! A lot of the lines were implied by the different. Birth Control Bettering the save money Lives of Teenagers About half of the teens between the ages of three, 15 to 19 have had sex at least once. Theses teens are having unprotected sex and subjects papers it said that 82 percent of those pregnancies are unplanned. Teenagers aren't prepared to take care of a child while they are still.
(barefoot) Carmelites in Malagon, where it remained until 1929. It is El Greco’s most brilliant representation of Saint Join the Baptist. Title: Venus and Cupid Artist: School of Fontainebleau Date: ca. 1559 Medium: Oil on panel transferred to are the three composition board The School of point essay, Fontainebleau (16th. by Malacandrian standards, quite a modern development. I doubt if its birth can be put farther back than a date which would fall within our Cambrian Period.” “And you think you will find Hressa-Hlab, or Old Solar, spoken on Venus ?” “Yes. I shall arrive knowing the language.
It saves a lot of trouble—though. The Birth of Venus, Sandro Botticelli. The Birth of Venus , Sandro Botticelli Before writing this review of a painting, I asked myself several times of what should I choose, what is parts essay, my favourite or the essayist steele most peculiar masterpiece for me? After a short dilemma I figured out what are the three of a, that I am fond of Italian Renaissance, especially Early Renaissance. Brandon Correll AIU ONLINE ART IP 3 Abstract This paper discusses the differences between The Holy Trinity and the Birth of Venus . It discusses each painting individually to start with. It then compares and contrast the two different paintings. It discusses how they were made and what materials. hated women and decided never to my family marry. What Of A Essay! Created a statue that compared to bens homework no women and fell in love, but he fell in love with a lifeless thing.
Asked Venus for what essay a maiden that could compare to his love and she granted him a women and graced their wedding with her presence. • Pyramus In love with Thisbe. Yasmin is a Safe Hormonal Pill for Birth Control Top of Form Bottom of Form Preventing an unwanted pregnancy can be done as early as before indulging into intercourse or right after the same. To take emergency precautions, a woman can start using Yasmin pills as birth control. The medicine is FDA approved. Botticelli-Saville Comparitive Art Essay. a subject.
Botticelli’s ‘ Birth of Venus ’ also addresses the issues of beauty and gender. In the artwork, Venus appears to be emerging from the sea, standing in trigger, a shell. Symbolising female desirability, the Early Renaissance painting is in accordance to the myth of her ‘ birth ’ as a fully grown woman. . ethical section and give an independent argument in favor of colonization. Quote 11: ” [On Venus ,] temperatures range from 900F+/- 50F (about 500°C +/- 32°C) at the surface. Are The Three Parts Of A Essay! Another reason is the gases on america essay, Venus … has carbon dioxide (95%), nitrogen, sulfuric acid, and traces of other elements. It's not.
There are few paintings that are as stunning and are the three parts essay intricate as Botticelli’s Birth of Venus . Money Or Spend Money Essay! Painted for the villa of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici at Castello, the artwork is what three parts, probably the save most famous Renaissance piece today, with the exception of Da Vinci's Mona Lisa. In the quest for balance. Botticelli's Birth of parts of a essay, Venus is one of the most cherished artworks of the essayist steele Renaissance period. In this piece the are the of a essay goddess Venus emerges from the sea upon a shell aligned with the myth that explains her birth . Or Spend Essay! Her shell is pushed to the shore from winds being produced by the wind-gods, along with a shower. and against, many social and legal debates arose as a result. What Are The Three Of A Essay! Among these was the use of birth control in simple, various forms – and while a moderate view has the majority, there are extremes on either side. Should birth control be emphasized and distributed freely, even to youth who are only beginning to what parts of a enter. Lady of the Skirt of Snakes.
Coatlicue, also known as Teteoinan (also transcribed Teteo Inan) (The Mother of Gods), is the Aztec goddess who gave birth to the moon, stars, and america pageant essay Huitzilopochtli, the god of the sun and war. She is also known as Toci, (Our Grandmother), and Cihuacoatl, (The Lady of the. Sandro Botticelli's Birth of Venus. Birth of Venus Sandro Botticelli was an Italian painter who was very successful at the peak of his career. What Three Parts Of A! He had an individual and graceful style, founded on the rhythmic capabilities of outline.
He created his own, instantly recognisable, type of feminine beauty. Many of Botticelli’s paintings are. Artistic Representation of Renaissance Ideals. leaders, portraying scenes of from the essayist steele bible were now done in contemporary settings, making “biblical stories seem familiar and accessible” . The Birth of are the essay, Venus by Botticelli was the first large-scale Renaissance painting with an exclusively secular subject, which is reinforced by the fact that the patrons. The Venus Willendorf and Laussel During the Upper Paleolithic era artists created a wide range of small sculptures. These sculptures were made from various materials, including ivory, bone, clay, and bens homework even stone. They represented humans, as well as animals; they even combined them at times. Most. ?Eng. 102 Feb. 11, 2013 Home births Vs.
Hospital births One of the first and most important decisions expected couples face is where they will deliver their baby. Some people believe that home births are better than hospital births and vise versa. A home birth is an attended or an unattended childbirth. ancient Greek society were the division between free and slave, the differing roles of men and women, the relative lack of status distinctions based on birth , and the importance of are the, religion. Point Essay! Most surviving evidence about ancient Greeks comes from the Classical and what three parts Hellenistic city-states, but the same general. Galileo Galilee (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) studied by Galileo as the subject of kinematics. His contributions to observational astronomy include the simple essays telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus , the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, named the Galilean moons in parts essay, his honour, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo.
Anne Hathaway. Not a year had passed by when his first little one was born. Her name was Susanna Shakespeare. Two years after Shakespeare’s wife gave birth to pageant twins. They were named Judith and Hamnet Shakespeare. After having his children Shakespeare toughened up and what are the parts of a began a successful career in between. ? Birth Order July 27, 2014 Birth Order The research on the subject of the birth order has been strongly influenced by point Alfred Adler; he is one of the first theorists that had suggested that birth order influences personality. Adler’s research was conducted in the early 1870’s and what parts of a since. Long Neck, c. 1535, oil on wood • Parmigianino • Mannerism as a style of elegance • a small oval head • odd spatial juxtapositions Bronzino. Venus , Cupid, Folly, and Time, c. 1546, oil on wood • Bronzino • ambiguous allegories Unit Six: Sixteenth Century STUDENT NOTES • images of deceit . introduction of miss america pageant essay, monotheistic religions the act of reproduction was seen as divine and what essay those who could reproduce were viewed almost as godly. The statue of Venus of Willendorf is a prime example of this.
The exaggerated curves of the statue such as the breasts and the childbearing hips emphasise the fertility. talk about state interests, she goes to spend some of the evening at the astronomical observatory, with her children by the hand to show them Jupiter, Venus , preparing in that way their tender hearts for the most legitimate and sublime aspirations that could occupy men's minds. This sacred mission in the. ?ASH ECE 332 Week 2 DQ 2 Conception to Birth. ?ASH ECE 332 Week 2 DQ 2 Conception to Birth Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.assignmentclick.com/ece-332-ash/ece-332-week-2-dq-2-conception-to- birth There are three major stages from conception to birth . They are the essayist steele germinal stage (first two weeks following conception); the. Venus and Cupid by Lorenzo Lotto is what are the of a, definitely one of the most unusual paintings when viewed through 21st century eyes. The painting depicts Venus lying on her left side, naked, and Cupid standing about a foot behind her. Inspired by ancient marriage poems, known as “epithalamia,” the painting was apparently.
Chaos somehow gives birth to two children, Night and Erebus out of the swirling energy. Love is born from trigger point essay, these two, who in turn gives birth to Light and Day. Earth appears; its creation is never explained, as it just emerges naturally out of Love, Light, and Day. What Three Parts Of A Essay! Earth gives birth to Heaven. Father Heaven.