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Book Reports/ Catch-22 book report 19938. The name of the novel I read is Catch-22 by Joseph Heller. This novel’s uniqueness makes it hard to classify but I would classify it as an anti-war novel. Biology A2? The main theme of the novel is one of hope and freedom from the barbaric grasp of war. Heller uses World War II as an multiple sclerosis research paper almost invisible framework in edexcel biology coursework which he places a number of vaguely related stories presented in no particular chronological order, although the kinesthesis, final narrative does tie them all together.
Catch-22 was written in a very comical style. It displays the foolishness of wars and the inherent violence and idiotic bureaucracy while eliminating the glory, honor and biology coursework a2, graphic depictions so often included in wartime novels. Heller uses loads of humor to convey his messages and while the main theme is obvious to the reader, there are many hidden and double meanings buried in the intriguing stories. I selected this novel because it was highly recommended by a close friend and I definitely enjoyed it. Heller’s humor is what I liked most about the novel. The novel is guaranteed to are located, bring a smile to anyone’s face and I absolutely loved the characters. On the other hand, I found his lack of timeline very frustrating and confusing. Some may consider this ingenious but there were parts of the novel when I was thoroughly puzzled as to biology a2, who was dead or alive. In addition to this, the lack of a chronological order makes this novel insanely difficult to summarize.
Other than that, I have no complaints about multiple sclerosis research paper outline this book and even without the timeline it’s an ingenious work. The novel begins with the main character, Yossarian, in edexcel a military hospital with a phony liver condition that is severe enough to take him out of combat but not severe enough to operate on. Soon after, a friendly Texan is brought into the ward and he is so overly nice and talkative that all the patients in multiple sclerosis research outline the ward, including Yossarian, recover from their various ailments and return to the war. After leaving the hospital, Yossarian talks to Doc Daneeka who informs him that the number of missions required to be relieved of service has been raised yet again by Colonel Cathcart to 50 from 45 while Yossarian has only completed 40. Needless to say Yossarian is edexcel biology coursework a2 enraged.
Doc Daneeka is also the first to explain Catch-22 to Yossarian. In order for a pilot to be grounded for insanity, he must ask to be grounded but any pilot who asks to be grounded is obviously sane. Yossarian is both impressed and confused so he takes Doc’s word for it. Hungry Joe is hilarious a member of Yossarian’s squadron who is obsessed with naked women and suffers from terrible nightmares on the nights before he’s not supposed to fly. He’s flown six tours of edexcel coursework duty but every time he’s due to be sent home, Colonel Cathcart raises the number of essay missions. Cathcart is also proud to volunteer his men for the most dangerous and risky missions. A member of Yossarian’s squadron helps explain how Catch-22 requires them to fly the extra missions Colonel Cathcart has ordered even though the Air Force regulations only require 40 missions. Edexcel A2? Milo is an extremely powerful mess officer who controls the international black market and searches diligently for profit.
He even manages to make profit by buying eggs for 7 cents and selling them for 5 cents, an in economic concept that Yossarian can’t grasp. Major Major Major is Yossarian’s squadron commander. He resembles Henry Fonda and his promotion to squadron commander causes him to a2, lose all his friends and hilarious essay, sets him in a deep depression where he decides that he can only be seen when he is not in his office. Edexcel Biology A2? Captain Black, yet another member of Yossarian’s squadron, is very pleased that Colonel Cathcart has volunteered them for the outrageously dangerous mission of bombing Bologna. But before the mission, it rains endlessly postponing the hilarious, bombing.
But when the rain stops, Yossarian moves the bomb line on the map to indicate that Bologna has already been captured. While this confuses everyone for a while, the truth is finally discovered and they are forced to bomb Bologna. Edexcel Biology A2? Yossarian is research paper outline so terrified of bombing the city that during the mission he fakes an intercom failure and forces his plane to return. The rest of the planes on the mission return unscathed since there were no air defenses at the target. When his superiors learn of what happened, Yossarian is reprimanded and forced to return and bomb the city with his crew. A2? They fly to Bologna confidently assuming there will be no defenses but are stunned by the shrapnel and flak being directed at them. Despite the multiple paper outline, surprise, they bomb the target and return safely. After the bombing of Bologna, Yossarian has a brief episode in which he falls in love with an Italian girl but unfortunately he loses her phone number. Colonel Cathcart once again raises the number of missions needed to be sent home and edexcel biology coursework a2, Yossarian is so upset, he decides to what we may vision of psychosynthesis, return to the hospital. He’s been a frequent visitor at the hospital and coursework, he even spent one thanksgiving there. Colonel Cathcart begins to worry extensively about Yossarian.
Yossarian has become an are located embarrassment to biology coursework a2, him because he complains about the ever increasing number of missions and in the past he attended his own medal ceremony completely naked. The Colonel wishes he knew how to deal with Yossarian so he can impress his commanding officer, General Dreedle. Yossarian was once a brave bombardier but he lost his nerve in a mission where his friend Snowden died in his arms. Strangely, Yossarian attends Snowden’s funeral naked in a tree. On one occasion, he takes a trip with Milo to pick up supplies and begins to realize the vastness of Milo’s dominance of the and music, black market.
Milo is edexcel biology coursework considered the leader of many countries because he’s revitalized their economies with his black market. In fact, his influence is so vast that he contracts the Germans to bomb Americans and the Americans to shoot down German planes. One evening, he made an agreement with the Germans to vision and techniques, bomb his own base. Several people are wounded and killed but Milo calms down the coursework, survivors by showing them the profit they’ve all made. On a later mission, Yossarian is hit by flak and what be the, sent to the hospital legitimately. While there, him and his friend Dunbar execute a plan to switch identities by switching beds with lower ranking officers. Not surprisingly, they are caught.
Yossarian and Dunbar then begin to fondle their nurse and when they are confronted by doctors they plead insanity. The hospital psychiatrist examines Yossarian, finds him insane and orders him to be sent home but because of the identity switching before, another man in the ward is sent home. Edexcel Biology Coursework? Yossarian begins to step, have a relationship with the nurse he fondled, Nurse Duckett. One day, while making love to her on edexcel biology a2 the beach, his pilot, McWatt flies a little too close to the shore and slices a man in half with the propeller. McWatt refuses to land the and music, plane and then crashes it into the side of a mountain.
Doc Daneeka was supposed to coursework a2, be on multiple sclerosis research paper outline that flight according to the paperwork even though he wasn’t. Nevertheless, he is edexcel biology coursework presumed dead. His wife begins to receive all types of insurance money and military aid for his death and when Doc writes her a letter pleading for her to explain to the authorities that he really is alive, she ignores it and moves away with no forwarding address. More and more of Yossarian’s friends continue to die and he is given four new roommates who drive him crazy. Because of this he flees to attention, Rome where he is unable to edexcel biology, find a whore he previously fell in love with. Multiple Sclerosis Outline? Nately on the other hand continues to edexcel coursework a2, fall deeper in love with his whore and while they argue continuously, she loves him too. Yossarian breaks Nately’s nose in a scuffle and research paper outline, when they go to the hospital, Dunbar disappears due to a conspiracy by the doctors.
Back at the base, things continue as usual. Colonel Cathcart has yet again raised the number of missions to 80. This allows Milo to be excused from his flying duties so that he can run his syndicate. The next bombing is a particularly deadly one and twelve men are killed including Yossarian’s friend Nately. Nately’s death drastically affects Yossarian and he refuses to fly anymore combat missions and begins to walk around backwards so that no one can sneak up on him. Colonel Cathcart feels bad for Yossarian and allows him to go to edexcel biology coursework a2, Rome. While in top resume writing Rome, he breaks the news to Nately’s whore. She believes Yossarian is responsible for Nately’s death so she attempts to stab him numerous times but Yossarian barely escapes without serious injury. Coursework? Back at the base, Colonel Cathcart offers Yossarian a lucrative deal. He will be promoted to major and sent home if he will only like him and make speeches in America supporting the war effort. Yossarian realizes that this is a blatant betrayal of his friends and his beliefs but is quite elated at the opportunity to go home so he accepts.
Oh his way out of the office, Nately’s whore, disguised as a private, stabs Yossarian and essays, seriously injures him. Once again, he’s in the hospital. He’s then operated on then has several visions and dreams that bring him to an important realization. He realizes that he cannot go through with Colonel Cathcart’s plan because he will be betraying his dead friends and be forced to live as a hypocrite. Just as he is explaining all of this to Major Danby, the chaplain comes in coursework with news that Yossarian’s long lost friend, Orr, who was presumed dead, is in Sweden. Yossarian realizes that Orr must have planned his escape and is inspired and decides that he too will run away to Sweden. As he steps outside, Nately’s whore tries to stab him again but he evades her and runs off into the distance. I found Catch-22 to be a very enjoyable novel but though it wasn’t without its imperfections. My stance about the book wavered back and forth while I read it but after reading it and looking back, I realize that it is an excellent novel and I’m glad I read it, though I do understand why some dislike the novel. When I first began the what we may and techniques, novel, I was intrigued by the name Yossarian.
I had never heard the name before and I knew from the beginning that he would be an interesting character. I thought he was very comical as were many of the other characters so I enjoyed the first few chapters. Edexcel Biology Coursework? As I began to get deeper into the book, the essays, lack of a definite time line annoyed me and the constant jumping around confused me greatly. It makes the biology coursework, book extremely hard to summarize in a few short pages. At one point I was so confused as to who was really alive and who was dead that I was forced to re-read a chapter. While reading the step essay, book that was my greatest complaint. Now that I’ve finished it, I realize that the order of the book is really ingenious and biology, it was the most effective way for Heller to get across his intriguing and unique message. I believe that at least one of the message’s Heller was trying to get across is the writing nyc, point that war really is edexcel biology a2 a terrible, dehumanizing thing. Throughout the book, there are countless examples of how people are horribly affected by the war.
One example is kinesthesis Hungry Joe experiencing horrifying nightmares. Another example is the chaplain beginning to doubt his faith and beliefs all because of the war. Another sad effect of the war is the suicide of Yossarian’s pilot, McWatt. He was only doing the thing he enjoyed most, flying, and that drove him to kill himself. And how can we forget Yossarian who went from edexcel biology coursework a2 being a brave bombardier to services, almost betraying his dead friends and living his life as a hypocrite. To me, that message is very clear.
Heller also tries to show us that despite the a2, atrocity of war, the human spirit can survive and overcome. Writing? Clevinger is the first example of this as he plans his escape and then disappears into a cloud. Orr also escaped and showed that he was unwilling to allow the war to take away his freedom and right to happiness. Yossarian’s story is the biology, most intriguing and inspirational. His fight to research, live and his strong sense of survival is the backbone of the edexcel biology a2, book. I picked up on a few double meanings Heller presented in the novel that reinforced the idea that the human spirit can live on and be happy.
Near the end of the novel, Yossarian informed Nately’s whore of his death and culture and music, she feels Yossarian is responsible for Nately’s death so she attempts to kill him. Edexcel Biology? Initially, he escapes her attacks numerous times with almost no injury. As soon as Yossarian agrees to multiple, Colonel Cathcart’s plan to go back to America and support the military and the war effort while inevitably betraying his friends, his beliefs and edexcel biology coursework a2, his happiness, Nately’s whore succeeds and seriously injures Yossarian forcing him into the hospital. That seemed to be confirmation that Yossarian was doing the wrong thing by what be the vision of psychosynthesis, agreeing to live as a hypocrite and lie about what he really feels in order to leave the war he so strongly hates. In other words, this confirms the idea that Heller believes that life isn’t worth living unless you are going live for yourself. When Yossarain does decide to runway though, he easily evades Nately’s whore yet again and runs off into the distance.
Most importantly, he runs off into the distance free without any obligation to anyone but himself. Yossarian has realized that, “the spirit gone, man is garbage. Another double meaning which I found quite interesting yet subtle was the edexcel coursework, Milo’s syndicate. Attention? I think that Heller is really ridiculing communist institutions, leaders and edexcel coursework, governments by including a character like Milo. Hilarious College Essay? Throughout the edexcel, novel, Milo constantly tries to recruit everyone into his “syndicate” by telling them that everyone has a share when the truth is that he is the kinesthesis, only one benefiting from a2 it. This idea runs very close to the theory of communism. The government states that everyone is equal and everyone is worth the same while only one person or a group of people are the ones benefiting. One idea which I found comical but remained a srong theme throughout the novel is the power of bureaucracy. Colonel Cathcart is the epitome of culture this as he continually raises the number missions necessary go home. And Captain Black’s crusade of loyalty where he forces the edexcel biology coursework a2, men to essays and music, sign a treaty declaring there loyalty to do simple things like eat is also a sarcastic example of the power struggle in coursework the military. And the rule Catch-22 is probably the most clever, yet comical idea I’ve ever come across.
It brings a smile to my face everytime I think of it. Be The Of Psychosynthesis? Heller’s complicated yet subtle double meanings and satirical style of writing make this a novel a classic. It was very enjoyable reading and biology coursework, while I would have enjoyed a few more climaxes, I like the be the vision of psychosynthesis, relaxed feeling the novel game me. The author makes it aware that people are dying but he uses the war as an almost invisible backdrop for a comedy and its not until late in the movie that it becomes obvious how sad of a situation Yossarian really is in. He does all this while communicating his strong beliefs of edexcel coursework a2 war and hilarious college, humanity. I applaud Joseph Heller for Catch-22. Biology? Word Count: 2632. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on multiple sclerosis research paper any level under time constraints. Edexcel A2? Well-versed in most subjects and multiple sclerosis research outline, citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and biology coursework a2, there is no plagiarism of any kind. Step Essay? Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.
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Les secrets d’un « bon » profil LinkedIn. Voici les secrets pour obtenir un « bon » profil LinkedIn pour vous aider a : developper votre reseau, faire partie des premiers resultats de recherche des professionnels du recrutement, vous demarquer, vous faire reperer, optimiser votre personal branding. Le nom doit contenir uniquement votre prenom et votre nom, c’est tout ! N’ajoutez pas en recherche active, ou ce genre de mention a cote de votre nom ! Si vous voulez absolument indiquer que vous etes en recherche active, vous l’ecrirez dans le resume (et plutot a la fin de votre resume), mais surtout pas dans le titre de votre profil ! Vous auriez alors une adresse de profil (une URL) du type : www.linkedin.com/prenom-nom-en-recherche-active-96-493-007 . Edexcel Biology! Bien entendu, vous pouvez (et vous devez !) personnaliser l’adresse de votre profil (cf le point 6) mais ce n’est pas une raison pour indiquer cela a cote de votre nom. Kinesthesis! Aussi, ce serait ecrit tellement gros que ca ferait fuir tout le monde ! Pour les femmes qui se demandent si elles doivent ecrire sur leur profil LinkedIn leur nom de jeune fille ou leur nom marital, je vous preconise d’indiquer le nom avec lequel vous etes connues dans le monde professionnel. Je vous recommande egalement d’ecrire votre nom en majuscules. Coursework A2! D’une part, c’est plus « joli », et d’autre part, cela leve eventuellement toute ambiguite entre votre prenom et votre nom.
Surtout ne pas ecrire que vous etes disponible, en recherche d’emploi ou a l’ecoute du marche. College Admission! Le titre est un titre professionnel qui indique votre poste cible, rien d’autre. Biology Coursework! (Lire aussi En recherche active ? Non) L’idee communement admise est de ne jamais se positionner comme en attente de quelque chose qui vient de l’exterieur, comme quelqu’un qui attend qu’on lui communique une offre d’emploi ou un stage. In! Vous proposez vos services en tant que … Le titre doit egalement etre accrocheur, tres precis, et contenir vos principaux mots cles, c’est a dire ceux qui representent vos principales competences. Vous disposez de 120 caracteres pour decrire votre titre. Par exemple, vous n’allez pas ecrire : Directeur financier chez X, X etant le nom de votre societe.
Mais plutot : Directeur financier groupe, international, DAF, strategie, operations, developpement, fusions acquisitions, trilingue. Pas de photo ne vous permet pas d’obtenir un profil complet . Edexcel A2! L’idee forte des reseaux sociaux c’est de se rendre visible ! Donc la photo s’impose naturellement. Step! Mais pas n’importe quelle photo, une photo professionnelle bien sur ! Pas de photos de vacances, ni de mise en situation de type en TGV premiere classe les pieds sur la table, entre amis, ou en famille. Biology! Surtout evitez de mettre un avatar a moins de postuler pour un poste necessitant une grande creativite, et encore ! Linkedin est un reseau de professionnels, raison de plus pour etre professionnel ! Il ne s’agit pas non plus de mettre une photo qui date de plusieurs annees dans le but de vous rajeunir. Top Resume Writing! Inutile de mettre une photo qui ne vous ressemble plus.
L’idee c’est d’apparaitre authentique , vrai, tel que vous etes, professionnel ! L’emission de tele-achat americaine HSN Beauty a trouve que seulement 19% des recruteurs ne faisaient que regarder la photo des profils Linkedin. Attention a ne pas negliger cet aspect de la communication. Biology A2! En effet, meme si la qualite des photos a considerablement augmente sur les reseaux sociaux ces dernieres annees, il est encore frequent de rencontrer des photos floues, des photos qui presentent l’ombre generee par la lumiere du flash sur le mur derriere soi. Multiple Sclerosis Paper Outline! Ne pas hesiter a faire appel a un photographe professionnel. Gardez toujours en tete la necessite de montrer toujours le plus de coherence possible donc l’arriere-plan de la photo doit etre coherent avec le poste vise. Une attention particuliere devra etre accordee a la direction du regard. Biology Coursework A2! Tout d’abord, puisque la photo est situee en haut, a gauche, du profil, il sera preferable de regarder vers la droite pour celui qui regarde. Essay! C’est- a- dire que le regard ne devra pas etre tourne vers l’exterieur de l’ecran. Edexcel Coursework! Donc il ne faudra pas regarder de maniere exageree ni vers le bas, ni vers l’exterieur. Kinesthesis Are Located In! L’idee sera donc de regarder vers l’objectif du photographe, en evitant de plisser le front ou les yeux. Ne pas mettre de photo est l’une des erreurs les plus graves sur Linkedin.
En effet, lorsque vous recherchez un appartement ou une maison sur internet, ne trouvez-vous pas louche lorsqu’il n’y a pas de photos ? Sur Linkedin, votre profil a sept fois plus de chances d’etre regarde si vous en mettez une. Attention, il s’agit d’une photo carree et je vous preconise de charger une photo dimensionnee a 400*400 pixels. Demarquez vous ! Ne laissez pas la photo d’arriere-plan que LinkedIn a mis par defaut. Edexcel Biology A2! Une photo d’arriere-plan bien choisie vous aidera a faire passer tres rapidement des idees phares. Attention! Lire aussi Comment ajouter une photo d’arriere-plan a votre profil LinkedIn. Apres quelques annees d’experience, avoir moins de 50 ou 100 contacts ne fait pas tres serieux. Edexcel! Si vous montrez entre 100 et 300 contacts apres 15 ou 20 ans de carriere, on essays and music peut se poser des questions. Coursework A2! Ce n’est pas la course a obtenir le plus grand nombre de contacts, mais cet indicateur est important. Multiple Paper! Si vous avez plus de 500 contacts, vous obtiendrez la mention 500+.
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Il est recommande de personnaliser les noms de vos sites web avec des mots qui vont attirer l’attention de vos cibles, plutot que de renseigner le nom de votre entreprise. Personnalisez l’adresse (l’URL) de votre profil linkedin afin d’eviter toute une serie de chiffres dans votre URL. Top Resume Services! Preferez une URL qui se termine par prenom-nom ou nom-prenom. Coursework! Cette simple disposition presente plusieurs avantages : vous apparaissez comme quelqu’un de plutot a l’aise avec LinkedIn et l’informatique de maniere generale, et vous inspirez davantage confiance. Attention Essay! Et puis, sur le plan « image de vous », vous donnerez une meilleure image, en copiant-collant une URL personnalisee sur votre CV 2.0 ou dans la signature de vos e-mails. Attention, c’est peut-etre la rubrique la plus importante a remplir et aussi la plus difficile a renseigner. Biology! Votre resume represente votre vitrine et les mots cles que vous utilisez sont tres importants pour votre referencement, en particulier pour Google. Vous disposez de 2000 signes (espaces compris), alors profitez-en ! Chaque mot doit etre pese et sous-pese. What We May Be The Vision And Techniques! N’oubliez pas que la plupart des personnes qui liront votre profil ne liront que cette rubrique ! Raison de plus pour allez droit a l’essentiel, chiffres et references a l’appui.
Mettez vraiment ici ce qui vous fait sortir du lot : experience dans un grand groupe, gestion d’un budget important, management de plusieurs centaines de personnes, trilingue… Faites en sorte que votre resume raconte une histoire, votre histoire, donc ayez recours a la technique du storytelling. Vous faites tout cela pour trouver un job, pour que l’on vous repere, pour que l’on vous contacte ! Alors, ecrivez directement dans votre resume (plutot a la fin de celui-ci), votre adresse mail ET votre numero de telephone pour que l’on vous contacte facilement. N’oubliez pas que dans ce resume, le produit a vendre c’est vous-meme ! Je vous preconise egalement de le rediger a la premiere personne du singulier. Edexcel! A ce propos, lire aussi : Le resume de votre profil « je » ou « il » ? Soyez authentique, soyez vrai. What Be The! Inutile de mentir. Coursework! C’est vrai pour le resume comme pour toutes les autres rubriques de votre profil. Are Located! Toutes vos relations peuvent lire votre profil, vous seriez immediatement repere.
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Enfin, ne demandez pas de recommandations a des gens qui ne vous connaissent pas. Le profil Linkedin est realisable dans plusieurs langues. Biology! Par defaut, il affichera celui que vous avez cree dans la langue de celui que vous avez cree la premiere fois. Are Located In! Et vous avez la possibilite d’avoir plusieurs onglets, un par langue. Biology A2! A vous de traduire ! Ce n’est pas Linkedin qui va traduire pour vous d’une langue a une autre. Attention si vous avez un profil linkedin uniquement en anglais, vous serez completement invisible de ceux qui recherchent vos competences en francais. Une rubrique vous permet d’ajouter des videos, des images, des documents, des presentations. Attention! Ne vous privez pas de ce moyen pour vous mettre en valeur. Biology! Assurez-vous que vous demandez bien aux personnes de cliquer sur la video, sur l’image, sur le document afin de favoriser le lecteur a cliquer dessus. Il est parfois tres judicieux de mettre en avant votre savoir-faire, vos realisations, votre savoir-etre, dans le cadre d’un blog, d’un site que vous avez cree.
Vous avez la possibilite de rajouter a la fin de votre resume, une image qui est en realite un lien vers votre blog ou votre site. What We May Be The Of Psychosynthesis! Un bon moyen de mettre en exergue vos realisations. Vous pouvez egalement creer ainsi, un lien direct vers l’URL de votre memoire de stage, votre memoire de these. Utilisez cette rubrique pour mettre en avant vos realisations, vos rapports, ou pour montrer des produits ou des services dont vous voulez faire la promotion. Edexcel Biology! Faites figurer uniquement des choses qui sont coherentes avec votre profil et qui seront interesser votre cible. D’autres rubriques sont interessantes pour vous mettre en valeur : Publications, Prix et distinctions, Certifications, Volontariat et causes. Postez regulierement de l ‘information , un article, un lien vers un article, un avis sur un post, mais toujours de l’information qui vous valorise, en coherence avec votre profil linkedin. Writing Nyc! Postez regulierement de l’information. Edexcel A2! Vous pouvez aussi bien partager la promotion d’un de vos contacts qu’un article que vous avez ecrit, ou un evenement que vous organisez.
Rendez votre profil vivant en publiant regulierement. Are Located! Personne ne pourra deviner ce que vous faites si vous ne le mettez pas en avant. N’utilisez pas les groupes pour uniquement realiser des renvois vers votre site ou votre blog, car cette technique peut etre mal percue. Biology! Rejoignez des groupes en rapport avec votre metier, vos domaines de competences, vos centres d’interet, votre cible. Attention Step! Ne vous en privez pas et rejoignez jusqu’a 100 groupes, c’est le maximum autorise. Les groupes sont un excellent moyen de vous tenir informe des nouveautes dans votre secteur d’activite. Coursework A2! C’est aussi un excellent moyen de communiquer et de vous faire reperer. De preference, choisissez des groupes actifs ou tres actifs dans lesquels il y a du monde ( plusieurs milliers de personnes). Multiple Research Paper! Certains groupes sont « ouverts » et vous y accedez immediatement quand vous les decidez de les rejoindre. Coursework! D’autres sont « prives » et votre candidature sera examinee avant de pouvoir y accedez. What We May Be The And Techniques Of Psychosynthesis! Parfois, il se deroule plusieurs jours pour que votre demande soit traitee.
Vous pouvez suivre des entreprises et etre ainsi informe des nouvelles offres, des va-et-vient dans l’entreprise et ainsi essayer de se positionner au moment opportun. Vous etes cadre, dirigeant et vous voulez gagner beaucoup de temps dans la construction de votre profil LinkedIn afin de rapidement vous rendre visible , offrez-vous un accompagnement sur-mesure de visu ou par Skype. A2! Cliquez ICI pour en savoir plus Comment ajouter une photo d’arriere-plan a votre profil LinkedIn ? Quelle est la recette pour obtenir un profil LinkedIn complet ? Comment rediger le titre de votre profil LinkedIn ? LinkedIn : comment recommander vos contacts par ecrit ? LinkedIn : comment masquer un contact qui vous a recommande une competence ? Globalement je suis d’accord avec ton article a une seule (et importante) exception : Ecrire le resume a la troisieme personne est bien plus puissant, pour les raisons suivantes: Dans l’inconscient du lecteur, c’est comme si quelqu’un d’autre faisait ton eloge… c’est donc moins egocentrique. Culture! Et par ailleurs cela permet de ne pas tomber dans le syndrome du « moi president », en utilisant le « je » a chaque debut de phrase. Ensuite, le fait d’utiliser alternativement ton Prenom, le couple Prenom-nom, le pronom Il/Elle rend la lecture plus agreable. Par ailleurs, le couple Prenom-nom apparaissant dans ce resume va augmenter ton referencement dans Google. Enfin, certains succes semblent tout simplement plus reels quand ils sont racontes comme une belle histoire. J’aurai plaisir a discuter de tout ca de vive voix! (meme si je sais que poster des comm sur internet fait grandir la popularite ;o) Merci beaucoup Gerard.
Je trouve ton argumentation tres bonne. Edexcel Coursework! Je me donne un tout petit peu de temps pour adapter ce point lors d’une prochaine version de l’article. Kinesthesis Are Located! Avec plaisir pour en discuter de vive voix avec toi. Edexcel Biology A2! Merci pour ton commentaire. Multiple Research! Amicalement. Edexcel Coursework A2! Philippe. Merci Philippe pour ce post a la fois tres complet et synthetique.
J’ajoute un point de vigilance : lorsque vous travaillez sur votre profil, il est important de penser a desactiver les options qui informent vos relations que vous etes en train de le mettre a jour. Attention Essay! Avez-vous vraiment envie d’expliquer toutes les 5 minutes a tout votre reseau que vous avez ajoute une competence ou que vous avez une nouvelle photo ? Chaque clic de validation envoie un message. Coursework! Peut-etre que oui, vous voulez le faire… mais alors dans ce cas, une recommandation : faites-le en conscience ! Merci encore pour cet article tres complet ! Un commentaire sur ces 2 avis : – celui de Gerard : je prefere la version de Philippe : le « je » reste plus percutant. Hilarious Admission Essay! Concernant l’aspect « eloge » venant d’une tierce personne, il est bien sur important lui aussi et la fonction « Recommandations » est faite pour cela ! – celui d’Alexandre : effectivement, ce n’est pas la peine de mettre en visibilite votre reseau de chaque modification que vous apportez a votre profil. Biology! Cependant, il est necessaire de le faire de temps en temps, a bon propos, afin que votre profil soit periodiquement remis « au-dessus de la pile ». Essays And Music! Cela augmente en effet votre visibilite.
Il faut donc jouer sur le parametrage. Un petit point simple : je conseille de mettre des majuscules a ses noms et prenoms. Edexcel Coursework A2! Cela parait evident mais on kinesthesis in voit encore beaucoup de profils tres pros qui negligent ce point de communication. A2! Merci pour l article ! Merci Philippe ! Je retiens en particulier la personnalisation de l’URL et le profil multilingue. Top Resume Writing! Moi qui me demandais toujours si je devais faire mon profil en anglais ou en francais: la reponse est donc LES 2 ! Merci pour cet article interessant. Edexcel! J’ai une question supplementaire, faut-il avoir son profil par defaut en francais ou en anglais si on kinesthesis in souhaite travailler sur le marche francais ( meme pour des groupes internationaux?).
Merci Christine pour ce compliment. Edexcel A2! Si la premiere fois ou vous avez cree votre profil, c’etait en anglais alors le profil par defaut est en anglais. What We May Be The! Selon moi, la langue du profil par defaut n’est pas tres importante. Edexcel Biology! En revanche, par rapport a votre objectif qui est de cibler des groupes internationaux et de travailler sur le marche francais, avoir un profil en francais et en anglais, me semble pertinent mais peu importe la langue du profil par defaut. Essay! En ayant le profil dans les deux langues, votre profil sortira a la fois des recherches effectuees par mots cles en francais et aussi pour les recherches effectuees en anglais ! En revanche si vous le faites dans une seule langue, votre profil ne sortira pas d’une recherche effectuee dans l’autre langue ! On peut se poser la question de la langue du profil par defaut si vous n’etes pas encore inscrite sur LinkedIn. J’apprecie l’article et les conseils donnes. Bonjour et merci pour ces precieuses infos! Je me permettrais d’ajouter qu’il me semble que lorsqu’on ecrit les mots-cles dans les 2 langues alors notre profil ressortira dans les recherches, est-ce exact? Merci encore!
Bonjour. Edexcel Biology! Bon resume des bonnes pratiques a mettre en place pour un profil optimise. Sur le debat « je » ou « il » pour le resume, je suis personnellement pour l’utilisation du « je » et donc d’accord avec Philippe : c’est plus personnel et permet d’eviter le syndrome « Alain Delon » #128521; Merci de vos conseils. Kinesthesis! Je voudrais demander a mes etudiants de preparer leur profil pour un cours de francais.
Est-ce que je dois mettre une limite de mots? Si oui, pourriez-vous me conseiller un maximum moyen pour ce genre de document? Merci a l’avance. Bonjour. Edexcel! Je vous preconise de distinguer 2 parties : le resume LinkedIn d’une part, et les experiences de l’autre. A) Pour le resume, LinkedIn ne permet pas de depasser 2000 caracteres (espaces compris). Essays And Music! Dans l’exercice du resume, chacun emploie ses mots cles (un mot cle representant une competence, il s’agira de ne pas confondre competence et qualite) et les repeter le plus souvent possible. Biology! Une premiere idee de structure pour les etudiants pourra etre : 3) Qu’est-ce que je veux faire ? Quelle est ma vision de l’avenir ? : Mon projet professionnel (30% du resume) B) Pour les experiences (stages, benevolats, projets…), voici une proposition de structure : 1) Informations sur la societe = en une ou deux lignes. 2) Information sur le challenge a relever, le contexte, les enjeux = en une ou deux lignes. 3) Qu’est-ce que j’ai fait (en trois points maximum) = une ligne par point.
4) Quels sont mes resultats ? je vous remercie – tres utile! Je ne souhaite pas indiquer mon poste actuel sur mon profil Linkedin car c »est un poste provisoire qui n’a rien a voir avec mon profil professionnel et ce que je recherche. College Admission Essay! Comment faire sans qu’on en deduise que je suis sans emploi? Vous avez raison de ne pas indiquer votre poste provisoire si celui-ci n’est pas en phase avec votre projet. Dans tous les cas de figure, vous devez renseigner sur votre profil LinkedIn, un poste actuel meme si vous n’en avez plus. Edexcel Biology! A ce propos, je vous invite a lire : http://philippedouale.com/linkedin-poste-actuel/ Si vous visez un poste de consultant (salarie ou en portage) ou si vous voulez devenir manager de transition, realisez une ou deux missions meme tres courtes, meme en benevolat, et vous pourrez le decrire comme votre poste actuel. Step! On en deduira pas que vous etes sans emploi.
Merci Philippe, bonne idee d’utiliser ce qu’on fait benevolement et qu’on ne met souvent pas suffisamment en valeur pour renforcer le profil et l’indiquer en poste actuel. Merci de ces conseils detailles. Edexcel Coursework A2! Je vais dire aux chercheurs d’emploi que je coach de mettre le nom du poste qu’ils convoitent, mais je ne vois pas comment ils vont s’y prendre. College Admission! LinkedIn exige qu’il y ait un nom d’entreprise, ainsi que des dates de debut et de fin pour tout poste entre. Edexcel A2! Comment vous y prenez-vous pour inscrire un poste convoite ? Bonjour.
Merci pour votre message. Are Located In! Vous trouverez des informations pour vous mettre sur la voie en lisant cet article : http://philippedouale.com/linkedin-poste-actuel/ Bien a vous. Edexcel! Philippe DOUALE. pouvez vous mi’ndiquer comment il faut proceder pour integrer le logo de mon entreprise (qui n’apparait pas dans les propositions) au niveau de mes experiences professionnelles? merci d’avance de votre retour. Bonjour Sylvie. Writing Nyc! Si le logo n’apparait pas dans la liste deroulante lorsque vous commencez a saisir les premieres lettres du nom de votre entreprise c’est que soit la personne qui administre la page Entreprise n’a pas ajoute le logo, soit votre entreprise n’a pas cree de page Entreprise. Edexcel A2! Bien a vous.
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Biology a2 coursework edexcel
Thesis Statement Macbeth Essay Essays and Research Papers. G Thesis Statements What Is a Thesis Statement ? If you have ever worked in an office with . computers, your computer was probably connected to a network. In a network, there is one main computer to which all the other computers send and receive information. If that base computer shuts down, all the biology coursework a2 other computers shut down—everything centers on that one computer. In the same way, every word, sentence, and paragraph in an essay must relate to or center on research paper, the thesis statement . A thesis statement. Computer , Creative writing , Essay 546 Words | 3 Pages.
ESSAYS BEGIN WITH A THESIS STATEMENT What is a thesis statement ? A single sentence . that summarizes your main idea How do you create a thesis statement ? Two Parts: (1) Topic + (2) Opinion = Thesis Statement The good, the bad, the ugly… Good thesis statements are clear, to the point sentences with enough detail to make the main idea of the essay unmistakable and the writer’s opinions obvious. Bad thesis statements may make the main idea and a2, writer’s opinion obvious, but the. Critical thinking , Edgar Allan Poe , Essay 637 Words | 3 Pages. Work from the General to are located in the Specific in edexcel coursework, the Introductory Paragraph of are located in a Five-Paragraph Essay In the standard introduction to coursework a . Are Located In? five-paragraph essay , the writer works from general to specific. There should be a broad, non-controversial introductory sentence that puts the reader in edexcel biology coursework, the ballpark of the essay . This can easily be accomplished by mentioning the name of the in book, the author, the time period, or some other piece of relevant, factual information. The next two or three sentences develop. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Humpty Dumpty 1715 Words | 6 Pages.
WTG 7a: The Thesis Statement and Topic Sentences The thesis statement concisely expresses your . Edexcel? main idea to kinesthesis are located in your audience and is supported by the body of the essay . Your thesis statement should do more than state a fact; rather, it should make an assertion based on your own ideas. ( Bad: iPods are devices that transport and edexcel biology a2, play music. ( Good: iPods are the best source for transporting and top resume services nyc, playing music not only because they are compact and edexcel coursework, user-friendly but also because they store. Argument , Critical thinking , Essay 623 Words | 4 Pages. ?This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and . Writing Services? how you can discover or refine one for your draft. INTRODUCTION Writing in college often takes the form of coursework persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Culture? Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite.
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Argument , Essay 1885 Words | 5 Pages. ?A FEW MORE TOPICS THESIS EXAMPLES TOPIC: body piercing BAD: Body piercing is popular among kids nowadays. A2? BETTER: Body piercing among . contemporary youth represents the latest form of rebelling against authority that previous generations manifested in multiple research, smoking, getting tattoos, and wearing mini-skirts. TOPIC: female musicians BAD: Female musicians are getting more popular. BETTER: During the edexcel a2 past five years, musical artists like Sheryl Crow, Alanis Morisette, and Jewel have solidified a place.
Extended family , Family , Kinship 749 Words | 3 Pages. ? THESIS STATEMENTS A thesis statement is the vision and techniques of psychosynthesis main idea (topic) of an essay . It is . often a point you want to argue or support in edexcel biology, an essay . It contains your opinion/attitude towards a topic. The thesis statement explains to essays and music a reader the main idea of the edexcel coursework a2 essay , and the writer’s opinion on college admission essay, that idea. A thesis statement is one sentence in the introductory paragraph of the essay . A thesis statement is a claim that could be argued. Edexcel Biology? The essay will contain evidence and opinions that support the. Abuse , Bullying , Humiliation 1063 Words | 5 Pages. The Thesis Statement This is not an exhaustive list of step bad thesis statements , but here're five . kinds of problems I've seen most often. Edexcel? Notice that the last two, #4 and #5, are not necessarily incorrect or illegitimate thesis statements , but, rather, inappropriate for the purposes of this course.
They may be useful forms for attention step essay, papers on different topics in other courses. 1. Edexcel? The non- thesis thesis . Admission? A thesis takes a position on an issue. It is different from a topic sentence in that a. Argument , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of speech 966 Words | 5 Pages. Literature Paper? An argument When you write an extended literary essay , often one requiring research, you are essentially making an . argument. You are arguing that your perspective-an interpretation, an edexcel biology coursework a2 evaluative judgment, or a critical evaluation-is a valid one. A debatable thesis statement Like any argument paper you have ever written for a first-year composition course, you must have a specific, detailed thesis statement that reveals your perspective, and, like any good argument, your perspective.
Bibliography , Essay , Modern Language Association 1174 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth Thesis Statement Research. ?http://www.paperstarter.com/macbeth.htm Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #4: Thesis . Statement / Essay Topic #5: Blood Imagery in multiple sclerosis research outline, Macbeth Violence and the bloodshed that results are important symbols in Shakespeare’s Macbeth . Edexcel? While the attention step blood that is shed is a tangible reminder of the coursework a2 outcomes of misused power, it also serves as an image that provokes Macbeth to reflect upon his deeds, even if he does not change his behavior. Macbeth becomes obsessed with the blood on college admission, his hands. Unfortunately, this. Edward III , First Folio , G. Blakemore Evans 445 Words | 2 Pages. Thesis statements and topic sentences. ? Thesis statements and topic sentences help organize the biology a2 ideas in an essay . Academic writers are expected to use . Top Resume? thesis statements and edexcel biology coursework, topic sentences. Academic essays are often organized using the essays following pattern: Introduction—the first paragraph of the essay . The thesis statement is usually the last sentence of the introductory paragraph.
Body paragraphs—the paragraphs. Each of these body paragraphs usually begins with a topic sentence. Last paragraph—Called the conclusion or concluding. Academia , Paragraph , Question 732 Words | 3 Pages. What is Thesis Statement ? Thesis statement is a statement that conveys the ultimate . message, intention or the main argument of biology coursework your essay . Hilarious Admission Essay? In other words, thesis statement can summarize your whole essay within a single sentence. Your thesis statement will be enough for edexcel a2, the examiners about which side or position you are taking in the discussion or debate. Step Essay? For example, in edexcel, the question of “do you agree?” type, this statement will tell the reader whether you agree and to what extent.
There are chaos. 20th century , Caste , Discrimination 962 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis Statements A thesis statement should be argumentative (debatable) and function as a one-two . sentence --condensation of your paper’s primary claim (or argument). Thesis statements are necessary so that readers can identify the point and/or argument of your paper early in the paper. A thesis statement also allows you to hilarious admission state the primary reasons behind your paper’s argument early in the paper. A thesis statement is biology a2 not a “duh” statement , such as “The extermination of the Jews was bad. American Economic Association , Animal rights , Good and evil 740 Words | 3 Pages. Center-LAC Rm.222 The Thesis Statement What is hilarious essay a Thesis Statement ? A thesis . statement is the main idea in a piece of writing.
The thesis statement is typically placed in the introduction and should be comprised of two parts: a topic part, which states the biology coursework a2 topic, and a comment part, which makes an what and techniques important point about the topic. Biology Coursework A2? Example: Recent studies of second-hand smoke (topic part) have determined that it is kinesthesis are located in more damaging than originally thought (comment part). Thesis statements may vary depending. Global warming , Methane , Paper 647 Words | 2 Pages. Macbeth Essay Essay Question: ‘Despite being written four hundred years ago, the a2 play Macbeth – . Top Resume? like all Shakespeare’s plays – continues to resonate strongly with modern day audiences.’ Discuss this statement with reference to the plays thematic concerns and the strategies used by edexcel coursework a2, Shakespeare to promote engagement and to attention essay shape meaning and understanding. Shakespeare’s play Macbeth still resonates strongly with modern day audiences due to edexcel a2 the use of themes and culture, devices that are still relevant. Audience , Audience theory , Lady Macduff 1386 Words | 4 Pages.
need to relate back to the thesis of the essay . The thesis statement is like a road map that will . tell the reader or listener where you are going with this information or how you are treating it. thesis Statement The thesis statement is that sentence or two in your text that contains the focus of your essay and tells your reader what the essay is going to edexcel coursework be about. Nyc? Although it is certainly possible to write a good essay without a thesis statement (many narrative essays , for example, contain only. Doctor of Philosophy , Essay , Rhetoric 1509 Words | 4 Pages. A Comparative Essay on William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Macbeth Comparative Essay Sign up for your choice of edexcel biology coursework a2 topic in class on Friday Dec.10. Limit FOUR students per topic. . Instructions: A) Referring to the play, the prompts provided for you, and at least one academic secondary source, write a five paragraph (minimum) to seven paragraph (maximum) comparative essay on ONE of the nyc following topics. You may ask: HOW DO I DO THAT?
Read on: B) Examine the biology a2 topics by step, going to the accompanying links and reading the annotated summaries of actual essays. Conscience , European witchcraft , Lady Macbeth 1376 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth : English Essay on Act 1, Scene 7 (1st draft) Introduction: When one reads Macbeth , they are introduced . to edexcel biology coursework the theme of deception and the technique of persuasion, both of essay which greatly influence the transformation of character in Macbeth and coursework, Lady Macbeth . Throughout Act 1, we see Macbeth begin to question his morals and values as well as the strength of his determination and hilarious admission, ambition. Edexcel Coursework? We also see Lady Macbeth’s ambition and determination become fiercer to the point where it becomes violent. Duncan I of hilarious admission Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 2101 Words | 6 Pages. provide a thesis statement . Typically, these two tasks should be accomplished using only one paragraph for a short paper, but can . be longer for longer papers. First, introduce your topic. The introductory paragraph(s) should briefly orient the reader to biology coursework a2 the topic and provide a conceptual map of the rest of the paper.
Your thesis statement is the main point of your paper and should address the paper topic assigned by your instructor. Second, provide a thesis statement . Your thesis statement is kinesthesis are located the. Paper , Paragraph , Pilcrow 896 Words | 3 Pages. ? A thesis is a concise statement of your argument, usually written in edexcel biology a2, one sentence. It must be more than simply a restatement . of the topic you are addressing—it should let the reader know about the conclusions you have reached in the process of your reading and research. As Mary Lynn Rampolla writes, “A thesis is not a statement of fact, a question, or an opinion, although it is sometimes confused with all these things. Neither is attention step a thesis the same as the topic….
A thesis informs the reader. African slave trade , Arab slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 927 Words | 3 Pages. The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable An argumentative or persuasive piece of biology writing must begin with a . debatable thesis or claim. Top Resume Writing Services? In other words, the thesis must be something that people could reasonably have differing opinions on. If your thesis is edexcel a2 something that is generally agreed upon step or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to persuade people. Example of a non-debatable thesis statement : Pollution is bad for the environment. This thesis statement is not debatable.
Drug , Drug addiction , Gang 1003 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth - Macbeth Is a Statement of Evil. Discuss Macbeth is a statement of evil (L.C Knights) Do you consider this a fair summary of the play? The character . Macbeth is portrayed by Shakespeare as the coursework larger view of evil's operation in the world. Shakespeare accomplishes this by using a powerful and unsuspecting character such as Macbeth . The audience sees how evil, tempts Macbeth . Multiple Sclerosis? Furthermore the use of messages addressing to or addressed by, how evil Macbeth is. The Evil inside Macbeth is quite evident; for he commits several murders. Devil , Judi Dench , Lady Macbeth 1009 Words | 3 Pages.
hi?u trong d? bai: Only, the most important, some, all, necessary, many M? d?u: NP…. Brings the negative and positive that lead to wide discussion. . Thesis statement : Example 1 Some people believe that it is acceptable for young children to undertake jobs that they are paid for, whereas others believe that this is biology coursework a2 wrong and should be illegal. This essay will discuss both sides of the issue. Example 2 At present, more and more young children are becoming involved in paid work. Whilst some people. Acupuncture , Alternative medicine , Ayurveda 692 Words | 3 Pages. Clarification: Automobile and Thesis Statement. Clarification Division Essay A classification-division essay presents an analysis by separating items: if you are classifying, . you are placing different items into a set of categories. Each member of each category must be logically related. For example, you can classify people by we may vision of psychosynthesis, age category: child, teen, and adult. If you are dividing, you are taking a single item and breaking it down into its smaller parts.
Each part must represent a logical division of the edexcel biology a2 larger unit. Essays And Music? For example, you can. Automobile , Biological classification , Essay 840 Words | 3 Pages. ? Macbeth - Power Essay Although there are many people that have possessed and utilised power responsibly, the coursework a2 majority of people . Attention? are easily corrupted by it. Edexcel Coursework? In particular, power corrupts those both weak and strong, supplying them with evil thoughts and ideas which leads to writing services essentially damaging their minds with the greed consuming all the edexcel biology power they desire. Are Located? This corruption ultimately leads to leaders abusing their power and responsibilities, which encourages the edexcel coursework audience to believe that all power.
Macbeth , Saruman , Sauron 1493 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth – Question Guide ACT 2 Act 2, Scene 1 1. What is the cause of Banquo’s sleepless night? 2. Find lines which suggest that in . this scene the attitude of top resume writing services nyc Banquo towards the king stands out in contrast to a2 that of be the vision of psychosynthesis Macbeth . Edexcel Coursework? 3. Attention? What details in Macbeth’s second important soliloquy help to communicate to edexcel biology coursework the audience the intense horror which fills Macbeth’s soul? Act 2, Scene 2 1. How does Shakespeare create tension near the beginning of this scene? 2. How has the murder. Duncan I of Scotland , Essay , King Duncan 578 Words | 3 Pages. Deductive Reasoning and Thesis Statement.
civics classes as well. In most cases, you were taught to come up with a point that you intend to make, and to put it into one sentence called the . thesis statement . You would then come up with three more sentences that would support your thesis statement with three specific points. With these four ingredients, you wrote a straightforward five-paragraph essay , and hopefully got an A for your effort. Of course, for the purposes of essays culture and music writing an epinion, you may have less, or more, than three examples to present. Abductive reasoning , Deduction , Deductive reasoning 1187 Words | 4 Pages. Write a thesis statement each as per the Feminist theory of Criticism and the Reader-Centered theory of Criticism based on edexcel a2, “A . Rose for Emily”. Use the author’s name in essays culture and music, it. Some of the tips you could use are as follows- Feminist- Use words such as “depicts” ,” illustrates” “ portrays” etc. Determine what it says about women in general. Determine how it portrays the main female character(s) in the selection; about her traits. What does the edexcel biology a2 selection reveal about the author’s attitude.
Character , Gender , Phrase 570 Words | 3 Pages. ? Macbeth : Comprehension josh.s Act 1 scene 12 Q1.locate two similes that contribute to and music the description on Macbeth and . Banquo -They were like cannons with a double load of shot -Like two tired swimmers, their armies clung together dragging each other down. Q2. Quote another reference to any other quality of Macbeth - “ Brave Macbeth – he well deserves that name!” Scene 3 Q3 Banquo refers to coursework a2 the witches’ prophecies. What are the predictions given to Macbeth and Banquo? How does Banquo. KILL , King Duncan , Macbeth 1297 Words | 6 Pages. Macbeth Act V Assignment Introductory Paragraph: Grabber: The prevalence of attention Lady . Macbeth throughout the edexcel biology play stimulates Macbeths lust to kill. Essays And Music? Setting and Character Information: Macbeth is the central character in the story. He is a dynamic character, and goes through a psychological change.
Macbeth at first is a loyal and trustworthy solider for King Duncan. Biology Coursework? He then goes rogue and commits a treasonous crime by murdering the King. Multiple Paper Outline? This is all encouraged. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1460 Words | 5 Pages. ?Relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay Complex relationships between main characters are often . crucial to our understanding of a plays core issues. Biology Coursework A2? “ Macbeth ” by William Shakespeare is a play that features a breakdown in the relationship between two main characters. Macbeth and his wife begin the step play with a desirable relationship but as the plot progresses, his ambition pushes him to commit regicide and many other murders so their relationship dissolves and disintegrates.
The breakdown. Duncan I of biology a2 Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 903 Words | 1 Pages. In William Shakespeare’s ‘ Macbeth ’- Lady Macbeth and Macbeth are presented as flawed characters in what we may, challenging . environments. In order to fully appreciate the edexcel biology a2 nature of the challenging environment and what about hilarious college it a character finds challenging, two questions must be posed: Is the character’s internal flaw a result of a problematic environment, or is what inhibits appropriate behaviour inherent-and what makes the edexcel biology coursework a2 environment challenging a result of top resume writing this quality. Macbeth is edexcel a2 a character in a challenging. Duncan I of Scotland , Environment , King Duncan 1138 Words | 3 Pages. MABETH ESSAY INFORMATION: In each paragraph, ask yourself questions, a you respond to the topic Why did Macbeth act this way? . What is revealed about his state of mind? How do his actions impact on others? What do you think he should have done?
Why USE TEEL : T opic Sentence E xplanation E vidence L ink (TO THE TOPIC(NOT TOPIC SENTENCE)) ESSAY TOPIC: By the end of the writing play, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are described as “a dead butch and coursework a2, his fiend like queen” Is this a fair appraisal. Duncan I of Scotland , KILL , King Duncan 731 Words | 3 Pages. Corradi ENG 3UE-01 Tuesday, May 19th, 2015 The Demise of Noble Macbeth Credited as one of William Shakespeare’s bloodiest and darkest works, . Attention Step Essay? The Tragedy of edexcel Macbeth is an emotionally tense, gripping play about loyalty, betrayal and ambition. Blinded by his vaulting ambition and research, encouraged by biology, his wife, Macbeth attempted to remove the obstacles preventing him from and music, being king; these obstacles happened to be other characters in the play. Macbeth accepted the a2 prophecies of witches as a guide for culture and music, what would. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , Macbeth 1716 Words | 6 Pages. Macbeth Essay “Look like th’ innocent flower, but be the a2 serpent under ‘t” (I.v.76-78)These words, whispered with the sound of be the . Edexcel Biology? greed and college essay, need for power were the edexcel biology coursework a2 beginning of a domino effect of many treacherous affairs.
Lady Macbeth throughout the sclerosis outline story of edexcel a2 Macbeth is affected by sclerosis paper, her previous gluttonous actions. In Macbeth (Patrick Stewart), Throne of Blood, and biology coursework a2, Scotland PA, this dominating character is behind many tragic events. In Macbeth (Patrick Stewart) Lady Macbeth convinces Macbeth to kill. Banquo , Duncan I of and music Scotland , KILL 920 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth Essay In the tragedy Macbeth , written by William Shakespeare, honor is needed to succeed in life. As . Macbeth both created and destroyed his honor, which results in raising his status, killing of others and the death of a2 himself.
Macbeth was a commander for his army which belonged to Scotland. He was part of a huge battle at the start of the play. Which resulted in a win for them. And Macbeth was highly praised for it. Duncan- Dismayed not this our captains Macbeth and/ Banquo? . Duncan I of Scotland , KILL , Macbeth 726 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth was a tragic hero who made a Faustian pact with the devil due to his pride and ambition which led to his destruction.
Shakespeare . shows Macbeth to be worthy and honourable initially when he was said to be, “For brave Macbeth – well he deserves that name” yet, he is immediately seduced by the idea of power, “What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won.” The witches’ play a significant role in be the of psychosynthesis, this play as they are associated with evil and seen through the ambiguity of fair is foul and foul. Banquo , Devil , Evil 962 Words | 3 Pages. Neel Chandok Ms. Alexander ENG3U1 May 13th 2013 Culminating Activity: Macbeth Essay “If you do not create change, . change will create you”. In other words, if you do not change willingly, change will ultimately modify who you are.
The change can be exceptionally superb or awfully terrible. In the biology a2 play Macbeth by William Shakespeare, the character Macbeth drastically changes. Essay? As the play goes on, Macbeth transforms from being a loyal warrior to a traitorous murderer, a loved thane to. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1184 Words | 4 Pages. Espinoza Period 4 English honors Macbeth Essay Darkness Macbeth is a play which, through the . protagonist’s interaction with a variety of coursework dissimilar characters, explores the adventures of a tragic hero. Macbeth is introduced in the play as a hero.
He is a brave warrior in the battlefield and wins his respects among the others and is made a worthy than by step, King Duncan. Coursework A2? But after hearing the prophecies from the witches, Macbeth is confused. After Lady Macbeth successfully persuades her husband. Macbeth , Murder 1271 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH 20 MACBETH LITERARY ESSAY The choices we make every day are what shape who we are as human beings. To ask how many . choices are made in a day is preposterous to ask because everything we do in life is a choice. The fact that I am writing this essay is sclerosis research a choice, what I eat today and edexcel biology, how I chose to life my life are choices.
Some of those choices can seem as insignificant as what we chose to wear to school, but what we learn is that no choice is insignificant. Others could be the difference. Macbeth , Macduff's son , Murder 1190 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Lens Essay: The Tragedy of Macbeth. quotes and top resume writing, write a critical lens essay using The Tragedy of Macbeth . 1. “The soul that has conceived one wickedness can . Edexcel? nurse no good thereafter”—Sophocles, Philocetes 2. “Ambition destroys its possessor.”—Talmud 3. “Circumstances are beyond the control of man; but his conduct is in his own power.”—Benjamin Disraeli, Contarini Fleming, 1832 In your essay , provide a valid interpretation of the statement , agree or disagree with the step essay statement as you have interpreted it, and support. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Macbeth 1637 Words | 7 Pages. Rebecca Barra English 11U M. Kevin Leveille November 19th 2012 Macbeth Essay : A relationship or not?
A relationship can . Coursework A2? properly be defined as “The way in which two or more concepts, objects or people are connected or the state of being connected.” A relationship between two people can sometimes evolve into the opposite of what it was when it had originally sparked between two people. Services? In Shakespeare’s play Macbeth , the relationship between the husband and wife of the edexcel biology story starts off strong. Duncan I of Scotland , Husband , KILL 1673 Words | 4 Pages. AS91101: Formal essay A main character who undergoes a significant change in a text is Macbeth , a character in top resume writing services, Shakespeare’s . play. He changes from edexcel biology coursework, being known as “noble Macbeth ” at the start of the play, to being viewed as a “tyrant” at the end.
This is an important change because it shows a once noble man who would do anything for king and country, to becoming corrupt in research outline, his ways. Edexcel Coursework? All because of his blinded ambition and sclerosis paper outline, desire to become the biology a2 King of Scotland. Techniques that are used to show these. Banquo , Change , Duncan I of Scotland 1241 Words | 4 Pages. defense mechanism used by the brain to in tell the edexcel a2 person what they did was wrong. Macbeth experiences much guilt in the play written by . Shakespeare entitled, Macbeth . Essays Culture And Music? Human beings cannot commit actions that their mind deems guilty and simply let it go. Edexcel? Rather, the guilt in their mind will affect different things such as their behavior and their further actions towards others. Services Nyc? This is seen in every act of Shakespeare’s Macbeth and affects the protagonist’s reign as king and the rest of his short-lived. Anxiety , Conscience , Duncan I of biology coursework Scotland 1339 Words | 4 Pages.
? Essay topic: “ Disruption in the natural order in the play Macbeth leads to chaos” Macbeth by essays, William . Shakespeare is set in biology coursework, a society where the idea of loyalty to the superior is absolute. William Shakespeare portrayed that there was a danger in disturbing ‘the great chain of being’ which ranked all creations including human society. It ranked humans above animals, nobles above the poor and at the top of the hierarchy was the top resume writing king. Edexcel Biology Coursework A2? When Macbeth murders King Duncan the chain was violated resulting. Divine right of kings , Donald III of Scotland , Duncan I of Scotland 912 Words | 3 Pages.
December 5 2014 Macbeth Essay Power is not for everyone. Power can be a very corrupting force on someone and in we may vision of psychosynthesis, the story of biology coursework . Macbeth power most definitely corrupted the mind of Macbeth . Kinesthesis Are Located? It begins with a little nudge in the wrong direction and soon has a snowball affect which exponentially corrupts Macbeth . The corruption begins with the arrival of the three witches. Macbeth seemed to be a very humble, strong, and brave man, never once thinking of ruling as king. Although Macbeth seems to be true. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan 774 Words | 4 Pages. 2012 MacBeth 5 Paragraph Essay A Tragic Tale of Ambition A Play By: William Shakespeare ENG-3UR As Shakespeare's . tale of tragic ambition Macbeth progresses, Lady Macbeth undergoes a metamorphosis moving from a stable, loving wife, into a power hungry woman driven to biology coursework madness by her own obsession for complete control. Although when the multiple question who is edexcel biology ultimately responsible for Duncan's death is asked, many will point the finger at Lady Macbeth . While she played a role in manipulating. Banquo , First Folio , Lady Macbeth 867 Words | 4 Pages. The Motivation of Macbeth Many times people do things based off of outline motivation; in the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare . everyone motivates Macbeth to become a powerful evil individual.
Macbeth is clearly motivated to a whole new level when he is edexcel biology given a lot of top resume services power of authority, but along the way he transforms that power into something bad, almost evil. Coursework A2? Witches have many tricks up their sleeves and predicting the future is one of hilarious college admission them. People always get an coursework urge to want to do something, but it. KILL , Macbeth , Three Witches 936 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth Essay In the Elizabethan Era, people’s lives were governed by a concept called: The great chain of being.
The . great chain of being is the idea that God has dictated the role and college, duties of edexcel biology a2 every person, but when people stray from their roles or duties, they are punished by God. As this idea was generally accepted, it is likely that Shakespeare incorporated the idea of the great chain of being into his play, Macbeth . The story centers upon a lord named Macbeth , thane of Glamis and. Duncan I of Scotland , English-language films , KILL 844 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Topic: Select one of the what we may vision and techniques of psychosynthesis themes of biology coursework a2 Macbeth and discuss the way Shakespeare treats it. Macbeth is, among . other things, a study of the effects and dangers of ambition. Shakespeare offers several different examples of are located ambition through the major characters Banquo, Lady Macbeth and, most importantly Macbeth himself. Macbeth’s ambitions of becoming King of biology Scotland leads to the destruction of attention his wife, his country and himself. Edexcel Biology? Lady Macbeth’s covetous thoughts of wanting her husband to be crowned.
Duncan I of Scotland , Kenneth III of Scotland , Macbeth 1323 Words | 4 Pages. ?Who is Responsible for attention step, the Death of King Duncan in the Play Macbeth ? – Essay The play Macbeth was written by . William Shakespeare between the edexcel biology coursework years 1603 and 1607. The main themes are ambition, magic and the supernatural, murder, temptation and attention step, jealousy. There are several characters in the play that could be held partially responsible for the death of King Duncan. Firstly, and most obviously, Macbeth . He is biology coursework responsible because he physically wielded the essays culture knife that stabbed King Duncan. However. Duncan I of Scotland , English-language films , Macbeth 1244 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction to the Thesis Statement : American History A thesis expresses the judgment of someone who has . thoughtfully examined a body of evidence on a topic. It is an informed and debatable statement that is the foundation of any effective expository writing or research project. A thesis statement makes a claim or expresses a point of view that others might disagree with.
Thesis statement = topic + debatable point of view (based on evidence) A five-point scale is often used in social research. Abolitionism , Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome 567 Words | 3 Pages. ENG3UR Macbeth The Meaning of Blood: Honour, Evil, and Guilt The famous 17th century poet Oscar Wilde once wisely stated “when liberty . comes with hands dabbled in blood, it is biology hard to essays shake hands with her.” This statement illustrates the connection made by modern and historical society between blood and evil/guilt. Hands spotted with blood are often punished as the hands of the culpable, but can also be celebrated as the hands of the honourable. Blood imagery is a prominent motif in Shakespeare’s. Acts of the Apostles , Macbeth , Macbeth of Scotland 1064 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis Driven Essay Examples Thesis : William Golding uses symbolism in the form of the conch to represents . the edexcel coursework concept of society. The boys’ evolving relationship with the conch illustrates that humans, when removed from the pressures of civilized authority, will become evil. We May Be The Vision And Techniques Of Psychosynthesis? 1st TS: In the biology beginning, the boys view the conch as an important symbol that unites them and attention step, gives them the edexcel biology coursework a2 power to sclerosis outline deal with their difficult situation.
2nd TS: Gradually, however, the conch becomes less important. Drug , Drug addiction , Gang 1195 Words | 5 Pages. symbol in a2, some cases. The characters in we may be the of psychosynthesis, the plays are supported by weather to an extent that gives the reader a sense of the current environment and setting . Coursework? of the play. In Macbeth , the attention weather symbolizes the evil within the witches, the evil in biology coursework, the character of Macbeth and the disturbance in the natural order of the play. This essay further debates how weather plays an important part in symbolizing evil throughout the play in various characters and in nature. From the starting of the play to the. Climate , Macbeth , Protagonist 1527 Words | 4 Pages. Rob Pittman 3/5/2012 English 12 Pd.
4 Macbeth Essay #2 Hitler is a leader who had fallen because of . unbridled ambition just as Macbeth . Both were very corrupt rulers, who did numerous wrong doings. Neither of them wanted to be leaders for kinesthesis are located, the love of their country, but instead wanted to lead for other reasons. We both know Hitler was in it to go after the coursework Jews, mentally ill, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witness, etc. Macbeth on the other hand only admission wanted to edexcel coursework a2 become king because his wife. Adolf Hitler , Leadership , Macbeth 891 Words | 3 Pages.
? Macbeth Essay Act 3 Scene 4 is so vital in the play ’ Macbeth ’ because it shows Macbeth as a man . whose wrong view of essays and music masculinity and his ambition made his guilt so unbearable that it drove him insane. ‘To make them kings, the seeds of edexcel biology coursework Banquo kings/ Rather than so come fate into the list/ And champion me to the utterance’ Macbeth’s fatal flaw is his ambition. His hunger for power stops at no bounds, even going as far as murdering his best friend. ‘When you durst do it, then you were a man, /to. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan 997 Words | 3 Pages. YEAR 11 ENGLISH MACBETH ESSAY In Shakespeare’s tragedy, Macbeth , emotive language and top resume writing services nyc, soliloquy have been . employed to coursework emphasise the struggle for what we may of psychosynthesis, domination between the play’s main characters. The main theme of Macbeth is the desire for edexcel biology coursework a2, power and dominance, which is appropriately summarised by this quote: Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself And falls on the other (I.VII.54) The two major events of the play, The Three Witches Foreshadowing and The Bloody Dagger scene, will be both be analysed. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Lady Macbeth 1141 Words | 3 Pages. com/login.aspx?direct=trueamp;db=nfhamp;AN=2W63604988158amp;site=src-live Database: Newspaper Source Thesis : “The negative implication . associated with same-sex parent adoption continues to affect both attitudes and laws for multiple sclerosis research, the worse. Society is still loaded with biased opinions against homosexual’s adoption, which severely limits their rights as people, notwithstanding parents.” Thesis : “In the twentieth century, America has undergone vast changes in family styles. Because of the increase. Gay , Homosexuality , LGBT 491 Words | 3 Pages.
6th March 2010 Macbeth Essay Shakespeare succeeds in making his audience . understand and emphasise with a tyrant. Biology Coursework? He has many methods of are located in executing this. For example, he makes Macbeth talk to edexcel biology coursework the audience, explaining what he is research paper feeling and edexcel coursework a2, what his true desires are. This is called a soliloquy; he uses many other techniques and top resume nyc, I am going to clarify what they are. In the play Macbeth uses very dramatic language to emphasise his evil ways. ‘Whose.
Banquo , Consciousness , Macbeth 1696 Words | 4 Pages.
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2016-2017 Yale SOM Essay Topic Analysis. Following up on the release of the Yale SOM essay topic for 2016-2017, we wanted to offer our advice on how to approach this year’s challenging topic. As was the case last year, Yale MBA hopefuls are required to respond to biology, one 500-word essay, but the services, Yale adcom has chosen to modify the prompt rather substantially. Edexcel Biology. In his blog post announcing the topic, Admissions Director Bruce DelMonico commented that the Yale MBA adcom developed this “seemingly simple and straightforward question” essay prompt in collaboration with a professor of organizational behavior at SOM. DelMonico shared more thoughts about the essay in our Real Humans of hilarious college admission essay MBA Admissions piece: “Every year we think about whether and edexcel biology a2 how to adjust the questions or even if we should just get rid of essay questions altogether because they cause so much stress,” he says. For this year, the decision was to go with one, “ Describe the biggest commitment you have ever made .” The essay question was crafted with input from Amy Wrzesniewski, a professor of organizational behavior at SOM who teaches the core leadership courses within the school’s integrated curriculum. “We were trying to get at a question that we feel will tease out some competencies more effectively than previous questions have,” he says. Sclerosis Research Paper Outline. “I’m excited that it will prove to edexcel biology a2, be a good question.” DelMonico adds that his team often taps the expertise of the top resume writing, school’s organizational behavioral faculty, not just regarding what questions to ask, but also how to evaluate the responses. Without further ado, let’s take a closer look at the 2016-2017 Yale SOM essay prompt: Describe the biggest commitment you have ever made. (500 words maximum) With such a broad, open-ended mandate, it’s important to impose a structure on edexcel biology a2 the response.
Consider the main categories of what one can be committed to: The benefit of being committed to an idea is vision of psychosynthesis, that it likely allows for edexcel, the broadest approach to responding to the prompt, as an idea could be supported in one’s professional and personal lives. For instance, perhaps you have been most committed to raising awareness of social injustice and what we may vision have sought to edexcel coursework, introduce this in your office and community. Or perhaps you are committed to lessening the kinesthesis, environmental impact that humans have on our planet and you have pursued that commitment via volunteer work, initiatives at work, and edexcel coursework changes in your personal life. Culture And Music. In short, it’s easy to see how commitment to edexcel coursework, an idea offers a broad array of possibilities to showcase various aspects of your candidacy. One important note regarding commitment to what and techniques of psychosynthesis, an idea is that some individuals may gravitate towards religion or politics. Edexcel Biology Coursework A2. While these are clearly fair game in light of the question Yale SOM has posed, it’s important to remember that these can be sensitive topics (and that we typically advise candidates to tread carefully when broaching them).
In short, if religion or politics has been your priority, the key will be to writing, focus on your actions and positive results as opposed to ideology. Before we look closely at a response around an a2, organization, we want to remind our readers that organizations can be of are located a professional or community nature. In addition, because the question originates from a professor of organizational behavior, it likely makes sense to reflect on one’s efforts within a group or in conjunction with groups. This would also afford the opportunity to showcase one’s leadership and teamwork skills—both desirable skills at MBA programs. Candidates do not need to feel confined to the professional realm; Yale SOM, after all, does seek to “educate leaders for business and society.” Perhaps you organized a community fundraiser or launched a community event—the key is to show how you engaged a group and led them to a positive result. With regards to a person, it’s understandable that one’s go-to response would be a spouse or child; however, we would like to remind readers that taking this course may present some challenges. First off, there are likely to edexcel coursework, be many other applicants following the same path with their essays, and that could make it harder for you to stand out in a crowded applicant pool. Second, it may be a bit harder to speak to elements of your commitment to a significant other or child in step essay a way that relates to your potential skills as a future business leader and ability to edexcel biology coursework a2, contribute to life at Yale SOM. Of course, if you truly feel that the biggest commitment you have ever made has indeed been to a loved one, and that you can write about this in essay a compelling fashion, then by all means give it a shot.
With all that said, we would like to remind you that “a person” doesn’t have to be a loved one. For instance, perhaps you have maintained a strong mentoring relationship either at coursework a2 work or in your community; detailing the interpersonal challenges of your relationship and ultimate success in achieving goals together could fit well here. Once again, honesty is the best policy here, as the most compelling descriptions of commitment will stem from something or someone you are passionate about. While we’ve covered what potential topics could be discussed, there are likely a couple of choices to avoid. Namely, though it may be tempting, this essay should be limited to multiple outline, one commitment. You may have multiple examples in coursework support of an idea, but the culture and music, theme should be singular.
Additionally, ‘applying to business school’ or ‘pursuing an MBA’ as an answer should probably be avoided. It is certainly a grueling process to apply to business school–and a big decision to commit to coursework a2, an MBA–but the adcom wants to hilarious admission essay, get to know who you are, not just your passion for an MBA. Also, remember that everyone applying to Yale SOM is edexcel coursework, theoretically making a commitment to an MBA, which would make it harder for you to stand out. Underlying each of the aforementioned categories, consider what it means to be committed: overcoming challenges consistently and staying the kinesthesis are located in, course. Biology. A commitment takes work, takes time and can take sacrifice or compromise. Consider what made achieving your goal difficult (in other words, what made you want to walk away or give up on your commitment), but, ultimately, what made you stick with it (some sign of progress, the impact of the research, ultimate goal). Finally, because this should be one’s “biggest” commitment, reflect on the scope and scale of the coursework a2, project.
Your commitment should be worthy of the moniker, “biggest.” As for structure, 500 words is not a lot of space, so it should be used wisely. Start with a concise and straightforward explanation of nyc your commitment—ideally in a sentence or two. Then, move onto the meat of the content, which should include examples that showcase how you are committed to the idea, organization or person you have chosen. Space permitting, it would be nice to suggest how you would continue to edexcel a2, pursue this commitment at Yale SOM and beyond. The essay can then be wrapped up with a brief reiteration of kinesthesis are located your biggest commitment and the satisfaction you get from it. Edexcel. Thanks for step, reading our analysis of biology coursework a2 this year’s Yale SOM MBA essay topics. As you work on your SOM MBA essays and application, we encourage you to consider all of Clear Admit’s Yale offerings: Yale SOM School Profile on sclerosis the Clear Admit website: up-to-date advice and admissions information Clear Admit SOM School Snapshot: overview of key curricular details and edexcel coursework a2 application information Clear Admit SOM School Guide: in-depth program and campus information and culture side-by-side school comparisons; everything you need to edexcel coursework, know for a successful application! Clear Admit LiveWire: admissions updates submitted in in real time by applicants to Yale SOM Clear Admit DecisionWire: school selections in edexcel coursework real-time by admits to Yale SOM.
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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to give teachers and students feedback. Edexcel Coursework A2. The candidate responses supplied here for top resume writing services nyc the longer essay-style questions are intended to edexcel coursework a2 give some idea about how the exam questions might be answered.
The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is kinesthesis in, rewarded in the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of coursework a2 approaching questions of these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by essays culture private shareholders who can choose the buyer of edexcel biology a2 their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the rules of the stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in what we may of psychosynthesis the company. An excess of sales receipts over the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the formula: profit = revenue – costs. Edexcel Biology A2. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by multiplying output by hilarious college admission essay the price at which each unit of output is sold. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to increase sales revenue by selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. A2. In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.
Revenue maximisation occurs at the level f output at which marginal revenue is are located, zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the edexcel coursework factors of production, and they bear the business’s financial risks. In small businesses, the entrepreneur is often the sclerosis research founder of the firm, building the business by investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the business and takes the important decisions about its direction and strategy.
5The management could control information and take decisions without the biology a2 shareholders being able to influence the decision or even being aware of an issue. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. Attention Essay. In the short run, at least one factor of production (usually assumed to be capital) is fixed. Labour is assumed to coursework a2 be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and writing services nyc none is biology coursework, fixed. This question is the obverse of what we may question 6. A fixed factor of edexcel coursework a2 production is what be the vision of psychosynthesis, one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. 8The law of diminishing returns sets in when units of a variable factor of production, such as labour, are added to fixed factors of production. Eventually the edexcel biology coursework a2 extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to the labour force. (i)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. (ii)The firm increases the scale of step production and edexcel biology coursework a2 experiences a proportionate increase in multiple outline output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by the size of output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of output.
A firm’s average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firm’s production methods benefit significantly from increasing to a larger scale. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the larger scale of edexcel biology coursework a2 production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Ford’s adoption of step assembly-line production in his car factories in biology coursework the early years of the 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to those of its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. ii) If the nyc firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.
There is no sense in doing this, given that an edexcel coursework, infinite number of customers are willing to buy the essays culture good at the higher price of P1. 14You can understand this question by referring back to the answer to question 3. As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the edexcel biology monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling more. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of top resume output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and returns to scale are both parts of production theory. (The law of diminishing returns is also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity. Edexcel. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into the production process and the output of goods or services that results. The inputs are the and music services of the coursework a2 factors of production that the firm employs. The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. In. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to biology coursework a2 scale occur in the long run. The law of diminishing returns has the status of an economic ‘law’, because in the short run at least one of the factors of production (usually assumed to be capital) is hilarious college admission, held fixed. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to fixed capital. Eventually, as labour is biology coursework a2, added to fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the hilarious essay already existing labour force and edexcel a2 the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to fall.
This is when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Hilarious College Admission Essay. Returns to coursework a2 scale by kinesthesis are located contrast occur in biology the long run when all the factors of hilarious admission essay production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of coursework a2 all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to and music scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the relationship between the law of biology a2 diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the marginal and multiple sclerosis outline average returns (or productivity) of labour. Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is edexcel biology a2, shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curve’s negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to and music rise. Biology. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.
And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the average total cost (ATC) curve), the hilarious essay two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and edexcel biology a2 the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the multiple research short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to scale. When a firm changes the scale of biology a2 all the factors of production in what be the vision of psychosynthesis the economic long run, it is usual to assume that to edexcel coursework a2 start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the attention essay firm’s long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the impact of edexcel biology a2 returns to scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an essay question is ‘issue based’. The mark scheme sets out all the writing issues deemed to be relevant to the question and indicates the maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the coursework total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of attention step 15. This is the edexcel biology coursework a2 case with this answer. All four parts of the question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. The maximum mark of college admission essay 15 is awarded.
02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the edexcel biology a2 fact that in writing many industries, e. . Biology Coursework A2. mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the college essay firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into economies of scale when measured in terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to biology scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.
This means that large firms, particularly in manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only a small level of what we may and techniques of psychosynthesis output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to coursework a2 produce the smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and what we may vision and techniques of psychosynthesis warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.
Since heat loss depends on the area of the edexcel coursework a2 container’s walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and warehousing, as well as in metal and writing services chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for the conservation of heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of scale (and economies of biology coursework large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for large firms than for small firms. However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for hilarious clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and general consumer exploitation.
The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to finance innovation and the benefits of dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an easy life, content with a degree of X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of production). In conclusion, the answer to edexcel coursework a2 the question depends on the assumptions made about and techniques of psychosynthesis, whether economies of scale are possible, the motives of biology coursework firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of and music consumers. It is coursework a2, useful to writing services nyc divide large firms with monopoly power into those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is biology coursework a2, one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in college admission order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by accident. Providing it ‘behaves itself’ when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and the public interest all benefit.
By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to edexcel coursework exploit consumers. Clearly such firms are not ‘best’. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is ‘level of skill based’. Having read the whole answer, the multiple outline examiner places the answer in one of five levels. These are: • Level 1 — very weak Level 2 — weak with some understanding • Level 3 — reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation • Level 4 — good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation • Level 5 — good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and biology coursework a2 06 context data response questions at A2).
The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of sclerosis research theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and edexcel biology coursework a2 issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the essays and music answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17–21 marks |with few errors and edexcel a2 |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an | |or |Good throughout much of the what be the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and biology coursework |use of data to support |logic and coherence |points of view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is be the, some awareness of | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Although analysis of economies and diseconomies of scale is excellent, the edexcel biology coursework a2 analysis on attention monopoly is too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and application of economic theory. Hence the answer is placed at the top of level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in a market. With the edexcel biology coursework a2 possible exceptions of essays currency and share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and biology a2 services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in be the vision trade magazines and on the internet to get a picture of the edexcel biology coursework a2 price of cars depending on we may be the age, mileage, condition and availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an extra unit of edexcel coursework output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to we may of psychosynthesis revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an biology, extra unit of output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.
Normal profit is the level of profit made by attention step a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the edexcel biology a2 market. Supernormal profit is excess profit over and above normal profit. Services. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to edexcel a2 enter the market and compete for customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the price of a good is college admission, greater than the biology coursework a2 marginal cost of production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by firms will be greater than the cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the good is demanded and society’s scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.
For any given employment of resources and any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is achieved when P = MC in all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by essay offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to create an incentive for the consumer to buy the product. Edexcel Biology Coursework A2. Quality competition is hilarious admission essay, when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to rival products. In this case the firm’s product may be more expensive than rival goods but the firm’s business strategy aims to attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in national and international markets. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the assumption that there are a large number of buyers and sellers.
Internet search engines and comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Edexcel Biology A2. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to nyc increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by limited time and constraints on a2 the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the six conditions that define the market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to kinesthesis are located in buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an absence of biology coursework a2 barriers to entry into and exit from the market in the long run, i. e. complete freedom of entry and exit. And Music. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for coursework its product. The demand curve facing the multiple sclerosis paper outline firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of market demand and market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the diagram. Biology A2. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the kinesthesis are located in ruling market price by its own action, means that the firm is a passive price-taker.
Condition (iii) of the conditions of edexcel perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the market’s ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the market’s ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firm’s business objective is solely to maximise profit, the be the answer is shown in panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the edexcel biology coursework a2 perfectly competitive firm’s average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to outline the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Point A in panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of output Q1. At this level of output, total sales revenue is shown by the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is coursework a2, shown by the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by college admission subtracting the total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Edexcel Biology. Referring back again to writing services nyc the list of the conditions of edexcel coursework a2 perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.
In this situation, the ruling market price signals to firms outside the market that an incentive exists for new firms to step essay enter the market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the edexcel supply curve to shift to the right to S2 in panel (b) of the diagram. This causes the price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firm’s ATC curve. Multiple Research Paper Outline. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the edexcel biology coursework incentive for new firms to essays and music enter the market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for marginal firms to leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to the left and coursework a2 the market price rises. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. For the kinesthesis are located market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and price P3.
This answer is similar to the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to edexcel biology coursework a2 earn all the available 15 marks. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the conditions as prompts for developing the we may be the and techniques analysis required of a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to one firm within the market, and to the use of edexcel biology a2 relevant and accurate diagrams to attention essay illustrate the edexcel a2 analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. 02In economics the word ‘efficiency’ has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.
A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and attention step essay factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per biology coursework a2 unit of output. In the short run, the lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.
This occurs when it is impossible to services nyc improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an initial ‘fairness’ in the distribution of income and wealth among the population). For resource allocation in the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in the economy. Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of a2 static efficiency, i. Culture And Music. e. efficiency measured at edexcel biology coursework a2, a particular point in time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over time. Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms’ ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of scale), and also from developing and marketing completely new products.
The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in the long run, but only under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at top resume writing nyc, the lowest point on the ATC curve, and it is a2, allocatively efficient because P = MC. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is simple. If the kinesthesis in firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. Edexcel Biology Coursework A2. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is what we may be the and techniques of psychosynthesis, efficient provided there are no economies of scale.
Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in edexcel coursework a2 which the culture market is too small to edexcel biology a2 allow a large number of essays and music firms each to biology a2 achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of step scale to coursework a2 the full, and hence to paper outline be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to biology coursework a2 be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. The problem is that the market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and essays and music the large number of firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of a very large number of firms to be producing on biology a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. Hilarious College. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in the short run. Edexcel Biology Coursework. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the essays culture and music pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the allocatively efficient level of output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by a firm should equal the edexcel biology coursework marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by services the firm, i. e. P = MSC and not P = MPC.
This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of output. Nor will the whole market. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of biology economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the we may of psychosynthesis answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22–25 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to biology coursework a2 support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on efficiency criteria and sclerosis research outline not on welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of coursework market share is controlled by four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.
Halifax Bank of step Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. Coursework. 3British Gas and are located Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for one firm benefiting to edexcel biology a2 the full from economies of scale. In the past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Because of the nature of their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and cables into millions of separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of top resume nyc distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the duplication of fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.
Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the market and competing for profits with the monopoly. Edexcel Biology Coursework A2. Barriers to entry will often take the form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of pounds of capital investment which enable the firm to operate at the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the step essay Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of mail.
Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to continue to make profits and deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by edexcel a2 imprisonment of company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.
If a cartel can protect firms from the pressures of competition and allow firms to invest in research and development to invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to invest in expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in higher prices for multiple sclerosis research outline consumers and they allow members of the cartel to operate inefficiently. In the case of the cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for cement, which pushed up the edexcel biology a2 costs of production for top resume the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers’ money to purchase cement for investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Private sector companies also had to pass on higher prices to edexcel biology businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced households’ ability to spend on other goods and services services. Biology Coursework. Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.
7In the original ‘prisoner’s dilemma’, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from step each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the available evidence is insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to go free. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for biology a2 one year; and (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and we may be the vision and techniques receive a reward — if he gives evidence to convict the other prisoner — whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.
Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in jail. However, the edexcel a2 best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and top resume writing services nyc possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisoner’s dilemma scenario can be used to model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in biology a2 the arms industry. A British and a French company are competing to secure an admission, arms deal to sell a billion pounds’ worth of edexcel coursework a2 weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. Writing. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the French company, the coursework only other likely supplier of the arms. Top Resume Writing Services. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to edexcel biology coursework be shared between the in two suppliers. The British company’s profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the coursework a2 British company thinks it a pity to attention pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of coursework a2 collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.
Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the bribe: a net income of multiple sclerosis $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. To avoid losing all the business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the bribe. In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firm’s dominant strategy, i. Edexcel Coursework. e. the strategy to be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and sclerosis outline vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from entering the edexcel biology coursework market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in attention step order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the edexcel biology coursework entry of new firms. Top Resume Writing Nyc. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the price of its product to biology a loss-making level in order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of their business empire to force smaller rivals out of the market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in hilarious admission essay order to maximise profits.
This arises when different customers have different elasticities of demand at different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an elastic demand, the firm will be able to edexcel biology coursework a2 sell them the same product but at essay, different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by charging different fares to different customers and also varying the price of a ticket at different times of the day to send price signals and create incentives and disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customers’ ability and willingness to a2 pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to kinesthesis increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from consumers and converting it into edexcel biology, extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to college admission different customers, it is in firms’ interest to indulge in this form of pricing.
10The gamer’s consumer surplus is ? 0, being the difference between the maximum price he was prepared to pay and the actual price he paid. The store owner’s producer surplus is ? 2, being the difference between the lowest price he was prepared to accept and the actual price paid. 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to biology an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for up to 20 years. This legal protection allows firms to make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.
Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and new product design frequently require high levels of research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the new product fails. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over essay, 50% between the domestic market shares of the coursework a2 two airlines. A significant feature of the data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in more than one country. SAS’s market share in Norway is about 43% while its market share in culture and music Sweden is edexcel coursework a2, about 37%. The first part of the context data response question in ECON 3 and in ECON4 will usually be in two parts. Step. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). Edexcel. The second part asks for identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.
Some future exam papers may revert to asking for two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for multiple the calculation and 3 marks for identifying a significant feature in the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for the question. 02The term ‘monopoly power’ does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to edexcel coursework a2 a situation in what we may and techniques of psychosynthesis which firms within the market possess the power to reduce output, raise the price, and make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for biology coursework flights between particular airports. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of essay monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.
As the biology diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to a competitive market price of P1. It does this by restricting the culture number of flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of output, with Air France then able to charge a price of P2. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to pay more for a flight. Alternatively, and presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is a price set deliberately low to discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.
A predatory price is set even lower, below average costs, with the intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the market, out of the market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of edexcel biology a2 landing and take-off slots at French airports, to make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to use the airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in multiple ECON 3 and in ECON4 the second part of the edexcel biology a2 question divides into two parts. Multiple Research Outline. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to biology explain the meaning of an in, economic term (in this case ‘monopoly power’). The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is edexcel biology coursework a2, constrained to hilarious essay a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is edexcel coursework a2, attempted. This answer is writing services nyc, more than sufficient to edexcel biology coursework a2 earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in danger of spending too much time on be the vision and techniques of psychosynthesis an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an answer to the last part of the edexcel coursework question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.
In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the writing services nyc inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an easy life protected from a2 competition, cartels display the disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and nyc improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to be good for the consumer.
For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and edexcel biology coursework judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to improve health and safety within the industry, or to ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is sclerosis outline, regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is biology coursework, treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by attention essay the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Office of coursework a2 Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to are located in a court of law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is more effective than other aspects of competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Nevertheless, the punishments that the RPC can hand out are quite weak — usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.
Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at cartels, is based on edexcel coursework the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only when firms operating within the we may and techniques EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the edexcel biology coursework UK and not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the attention of the EU Competition Commissioner, who is in be the and techniques of psychosynthesis charge of EU competition policy. Edexcel Biology Coursework A2. In practice, EU and national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. Attention. This is evidenced by edexcel biology coursework a2 the case study in Extract C in the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about €800 million for fixing the price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined €104 million, Air France-KLM €340 million and Cargolux Airlines €79.
9 million. The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by a dissatisfied member of the admission cartel ‘blowing the whistle’ on other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word ‘solely’ in the question. National and EU policy should reinforce each other and edexcel coursework a2 be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of level 4 (17–21 marks) rather than in level 5. Essays. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. However, the analysis is on the thin side. To ensure a level 5 mark, the candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an coursework, essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to each other. This is attention step, good evaluation.
Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and biology coursework a2 services, firms respond by employing more labour to increase production. Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to sclerosis research outline employers, but because their labour is necessary for profits to be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in biology a2 the labour market is both similar to, and different from, perfect competition in the goods market. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the kinesthesis are located in interaction of all the economic agents operating in the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the ruling market wage, paid by firms and received by workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of demand in the goods market, are the a2 source of supply of labour in the labour market. Kinesthesis Are Located In. Similarly, firms, which are the coursework source of supply in the goods market, are the attention step source of edexcel a2 demand (a derived demand) in the labour market.
As a result of role reversal, the hilarious admission ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is biology, its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and also the AR and MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the services nyc ruling market wage facing each employer in biology coursework the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and also the kinesthesis in average cost of labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the train drivers’ union, and with RMT, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers’ unions. In 1999, the biology coursework a2 national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at essays culture and music, a rate of ? 3. 60 an hour for workers aged 22 and over. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the coursework a2 main rate for workers aged 21 and over; ? 4. 98, the 18–20 rate; ? 3. 68, the 16–17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the culture and music apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of biology coursework their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the payments received by an individual or household in we may be the vision and techniques a given time period. Wealth is an economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to biology coursework a2 an individual or household by the government via the taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in exchange for multiple sclerosis research outline labour or interest on saving or the rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is a flow while wealth is a stock.
Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the flow of biology a2 money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to multiple research paper or enlarge personal wealth. This is edexcel biology, one of the links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite essays culture and music, direction: the wealthier people are, the edexcel more investment income they are likely to essays culture earn, which adds to their total income. Biology Coursework A2. Indeed, the multiple outline rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the wealthy to save, and saving adds to wealth, and so on. By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is edexcel biology a2, then spent on debt repayment, consumption falls, and any wealth the poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and wealth have always been unequally distributed in what vision and techniques the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Three of the main causes of inequalities in the distribution of income and biology a2 wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of those in work.
Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on step the state pension and lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in edexcel biology coursework a2 line with average earnings. Attention Essay. This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in coursework a2 line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the real earnings of those in work have continued to rise. Pensioners reliant solely on the state for a source of income have especially suffered.
The state pension is essays culture, now regarded very much as a ‘poverty income’. Edexcel Biology A2. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of culture and music living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for similar reasons as apply to coursework the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in top resume nyc work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on low incomes). (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the wages and salaries of much of the UK population in work have hardly changed at edexcel biology, all, but the state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of hilarious admission essay widening income differentials, an a2, important factor has been the top resume writing nyc disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in edexcel biology coursework a2 the private sector. College Essay. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in the British labour market.
There is now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the pile, and highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in both real and nominal terms. This answer scores 14 out coursework a2 of the 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in the answer to the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). Kinesthesis Are Located In. The candidate lists and edexcel then explains three causes of income inequality. The effects of old age and unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of low wages is kinesthesis in, sound but a little thin.
It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and low wages is partially caused by different demand and supply conditions in different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in tax. A transfer is the payment of income by the state to a benefit recipient, without the person involved providing any labour in exchange for the income received. It is of course possible for the government to use progressive taxation to narrow the gap between pre-tax and post-tax income, without redistributing income. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and guns. It is edexcel biology, also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for multiple sclerosis outline example through subsidies given to already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the tax revenue is transferred and given as welfare benefits to the poor. Coursework. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and transfers provide an obvious way to what vision of psychosynthesis reduce inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth. Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt — with some success — to coursework a2 reduce inequalities in the distribution of income. Sclerosis Paper. However, there is edexcel a2, a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in mind.
The reason for this relates to the conflict between two of the top resume services nyc principles or canons of taxation: equity and efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is edexcel biology, fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on are located in the taxpayer’s ability to pay. Edexcel Biology. This principle is one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the rich have a greater ability to sclerosis research outline pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an edexcel coursework, adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the multiple sclerosis research outline incentives to work harder, to be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.
Free-market and coursework supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to a significant slowing down of the what we may economy’s rate of biology a2 growth. Kinesthesis Are Located. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for edexcel work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UK’s growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and transfers to culture and music the poor mean that people have less incentive to work harder and to engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at which they are available creates a situation in which the poor rationally choose unemployment and edexcel state benefits in preference to low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively ‘married to the state’, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and other public property, as well as privately owned property.
Meanwhile, at the top of the what be the vision and techniques of psychosynthesis income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. They stop working, or work abroad, and many hours are wasted in designing and edexcel coursework a2 applying complicated systems of tax avoidance — a paradise for accountants. Hilarious College Admission Essay. Tax evasion (the failure to edexcel biology coursework a2 pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and bottom of the income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in favour of attention step essay supplying labour, particularly for benefit claimants who lack the skills necessary for high-paid jobs. They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Edexcel Biology Coursework. Through a ‘trickle down’ effect, the poor would end up better off in absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.
Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of intervention in the free market are necessary. One of these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to essays and music improve the social wage of lower-income groups. The social wage is biology a2, that part of a worker’s standard of living received as goods and services provided at zero price or as ‘income in kind’ by writing services the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to biology a2 high taxation, with the disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to other aspects of essay government failure. It is important to read the question carefully.
This question does not ask for a discussion of whether the distribution of income should be made more equal. Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is edexcel biology coursework a2, still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and attention has been placed at mid-level 4. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on edexcel a2 the actual set question and more discussion and analysis of policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for definitions in answers to the final parts of essay and in context data-response questions. Edexcel. Nevertheless, it is still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for developing the subsequent analysis and evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good — see answer to question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is provided by the market mechanism and it has the characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. A merit good, however, is hilarious college, often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.
There are two reasons for this. First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into pure public goods and non-pure public goods. National defence and police are examples of pure public goods — defined as public goods for which it is impossible to exclude ‘free-riders’. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Methods can be devised for converting the goods into private goods by excluding ‘free-riders’ (for example, electronic pricing of road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.
For public goods, the optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to consume, individuals take account of edexcel short-term costs and benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Many people ignore the long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ‘If only I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger’. Kinesthesis Are Located In. Likewise, school children who undervalue the long-term private benefit of education say later in life: ‘If only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. ’ 4Property rights in a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of society from edexcel a2 entering the land or using the sclerosis research outline good, unless they are willing to pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the market in which it operates. This can take the form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in the extreme, bribery.
This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term ‘regulatory capture’. 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in dynamic efficiency. Edexcel Biology Coursework A2. As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the issue is strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to step the UK competition authorities. Edexcel. See also the answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on sclerosis research outline pages 15–16 of these answers. 7In 2008 and edexcel biology coursework 2009 many banks in many countries, including the UK, were close to collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in the USA. Culture And Music. Banks faced the danger of possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the credit crunch and coursework the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.
Banks make money by lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from college admission essay customers. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on biology coursework demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of sclerosis research paper it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to edexcel biology coursework a2 a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in which the collapse of one bank leads to a string of collapses in college essay other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on edexcel biology coursework a2 confidence in the economy, which may in turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and the creation of recessionary conditions.
Government ministers also realise the crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and firms. When the banking system froze in 2007–08, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the cash supply to perfectly well-run firms dried up and multiple some of them went out of business. All this helps to explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to edexcel biology a2 continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of essay loans both to business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. At the edexcel coursework time of effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Northern Rock bank — the so-called ‘good bank’ but not the ‘bad bank’ element which is still state-owned — has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of Virgin Money. 8As the answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.
An example of deregulation was a change in the law to allow building societies to compete with banks when granting loans to customers. 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. Equity relates to whether the distribution of income between different people is attention step, fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since people’s incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on edexcel a2 people’s value judgements as to what is fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in the unemployment trap are out of work — at least in terms of officially declared employment.
The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who ‘choose’ unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on what we may vision and techniques of psychosynthesis benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and NICs and losing some or all of their right to edexcel biology coursework a2 claim means-tested benefits. Top Resume Writing. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on fuel. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the number of homes affected rose by edexcel coursework a2 one million, or 22%, to top resume 5. 5 million, according to coursework a2 the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of attention step essay carbon pollutants in 1990. This is forecast to edexcel biology coursework rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in sclerosis 2050, an increase of edexcel a2 4. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of 467%. One significant feature of the what vision and techniques of psychosynthesis data is that, after 2010, the carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to edexcel coursework continue to rise, whereas the attention rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is edexcel coursework a2, expected to writing slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the a2 carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. 7 billion tonnes.
OECD emissions are expected to rise from about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Multiple Paper Outline. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of question. First, candidates often fail to a2 read the data carefully and end up quoting numbers that are too far different from those in the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and a % sign for the % change in writing the first part of the answer). Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is biology coursework, vital to essay select a significant feature of the data rather than an insignificant feature. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of non-excludability and non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the good is provided to one person it is provided to edexcel biology coursework all.
It is impossible to sclerosis exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the good, it does not reduce the quantity of the good available for other people. The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and lead to global warming are both externalities and a form of public ‘bad’. (A public ‘bad’ is the opposite of a public good. People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of a ‘bad’, to coursework avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. Writing Services Nyc. But in the case of public ‘bads’, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the ‘bad’ in a public place, or on someone else’s property. Edexcel Coursework. Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in the course of production and consumption, for example by power stations and multiple outline motorists. Edexcel Coursework A2. The unwilling victims of global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the sclerosis research polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is biology a2, taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is different from the emission of many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the first place, the emission is international.
No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the problem is historical. The atmosphere is continuing to top resume warm up as a result of biology coursework emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the step industrial revolution about two centuries ago. It may be impossible to stop continuing global warming simply by coursework a2 ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to contribute to global warming. And with the rapid growth of the world’s population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to and music reduce or to a2 stop them.
This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks — 4 marks for outline the snappy explanation of the meaning of a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by the question. It is biology coursework a2, important to remember that only the final parts of context data-response questions and essay questions test the skill of multiple paper evaluation. Evaluation is not required in the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Biology Coursework. Do not be misled by the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. This is hilarious college essay, not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change. The first of these is edexcel biology, flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for attention step essay example the destruction of a2 property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.
The second is a decrease in heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of multiple sclerosis research paper energy to biology coursework provide the top resume nyc power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. The extract goes on to mention that ‘with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the need to find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing’. It is possible to take issue with this prediction, on edexcel coursework the ground that it is now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the earth’s crust and the technology now exists to extract and use this quite recently discovered source of hilarious admission fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the diminishing conventional supplies of coursework natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and are located it will be used for home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for the provision of electricity. But is edexcel coursework, this a benefit or a cost?
It is certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Multiple Sclerosis Outline. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Coursework. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5°C may spell disaster for we may vision and techniques of psychosynthesis human-kind and life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an impact on the UK economy. These include the decline of edexcel ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of research outline production, and on how water is used and biology a2 stored. Attention Step Essay. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and coursework a2 are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. In conclusion, at the risk of hilarious college admission being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to the argument made in the previous paragraph.
Again in my view, the costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at biology coursework a2, least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to kinesthesis in make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to attempted mass migration of people from poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and edexcel biology a2 seeking a better life for themselves. College Admission Essay. The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of biology coursework 25 marks and is placed at the top of level 3 (10–16 marks). Although the candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and culture also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is biology coursework, weakened because evaluation is not preceded by essays strong enough analysis.
The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the a2 prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on the side of hilarious being too superficial. Biology A2. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the we may vision of psychosynthesis top of level 3 and could possibly creep into biology a2, the bottom of level 4. The grade descriptor for level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10–16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the services issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |