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Advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay

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Advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay

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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being a Doctor Free Ö

Businessplan professionell erstellen lassen. Of Being Essay? Die Unternehmensberatung Businessplan.org unterstutzt seit mittlerweile uber 10 Jahren Unternehmensgrunder/Startups und junge sowie etablierte Unternehmen bei der Erstellung hochprofessioneller Businessplane. Resume? Hierbei zeichnet sich die Unternehmensberatung Businessplan.org insbesondere aus durch: Langjahrige Erfahrung umfangreiches Know-How Absolute Spezialisierung auf die Erstellung von qualifizierten Businessplanen Fundierte betriebswirtschaftliche Ausbildung aller Businessplan-Spezialisten (Dipl.-Kfm./Steuerberater/Wirtschaftsprufer) Hervorragende Kenntnisse der Anspruche unterschiedlicher Businessplan-Adressaten Langjahrig aufgebaute, umfangreiche Datenbank an and disadvantages of being a doctor, Branchenvergleichszahlen und Marktdaten Hohe Erfolgsquote bei der Beantragung von Finanzierungen, Investorengelder, Fordermittel, Zuschusse usw. In Dissertation? Bundesweites Netzwerk mit uber 60 Partnerberatungsburos zur Unterstutzung bei der Umsetzung der Businessplan-Inhalte Akkreditierung der Berater bei den einschlagigen Forderinstitutionen (z.B. Of Being A Doctor Essay? KfW, RKW, IHK usw.) Breit gefacherte Branchen- und Marktkenntnisse mit spezialisierungsbedingt umfangreichen Recherchemoglichkeiten Zulassung als fachkundige Stelle nach ß57 Abs. Nurse? 2 Nr. Advantages A Doctor Essay? 3 SGB III zur Tragfahigkeitsbewertung von Unternehmenskonzepten Transparenz, Termintreue und Schnelligkeit Hervorragende Vernetzung und Aktualitat (Jurymitglied im Munchener Businessplan-Wettbewerb, Mitglied im Verband deutscher Grundungsinitiativen, Businessplan-Dozententatigkeit bei Grundertagen/-wochen usw.) 100% Kundenzufriedenheit als oberste Maxime. Requirements? Wir wurden uns sehr freuen, wenn auch Sie Ihren professionellen Businessplan durch unsere Spezialisten erstellen lassen. Advantages A Doctor? Folgend ein kurzes Video zur Vorstellung unserer Unternehmensberatung:

Lassen Sie sich einfach hier ein unverbindliches Angebot fur die Erstellung Ihres Businessplans unterbreiten Wir freuen uns auf Sie! Die Unternehmensberatung Businessplan.org gibt Ratschlage sowie konkrete Unterstutzung bei der Erstellung von einem Businessplan. In Dissertation? Wir verschaffen Ihnen hierbei einerseits eine Ubersicht uber die erforderlichen Inhalte fur einen Businessplan, andererseits konnen sich Existenzgrunder oder Unternehmer durch unsere Profis einen individuellen, professionellen Businessplan erstellen lassen . And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? Gerne stehen wir Ihnen als Berater fur die Erstellung von einem Businessplan oder fur eine fachkundige Stellungnahme zur Verfugung. My Experience In School? Businessplan professionell erstellen lassen mit Businessplan.org. Advantages Of Being A Doctor? Businessplan.org gehort zu den fuhrenden Businessplan-Unternehmensberatungen im deutschsprachigen Raum. About My Experience In School? Dabei unterstutzen wir sowohl kleine und mittlere Unternehmen als auch Unternehmensgrunder und Start-ups. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? Bitte nehmen Sie Kontakt zu uns auf Wir unterbreiten Ihnen gerne ein Angebot. Fuhrende Businessplan-Unternehmensberatung.

Mit seinen 60 Partnerburos, namhaften Kunden, 10 Jahren Spezialisierung auf Businessplan-Erstellung, breiten Branchenkenntnissen, der fachlichen Qualifikation der Mitarbeiter (Dipl.-Kfm./Steuerberater/Wirtschaftsprufer) usw. Numbering? gehort Businessplan.org zu den fuhrenden Businessplan-Unternehmensberatungen im deutschsprachigen Raum. Advantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? mehr erfahren. Umfangreiches Businessplan-Know-How. In unserem Businessplan-Ratgeber haben unsere Experten umfangreiches Businessplan-Wissen fur Sie zusammengefasst: Sie finden dort ein Online-Video-Seminar, alle Businessplan-Kapitel mit ausfuhrlichen Erlauterungen, Businessplan-Muster, ein Businessplan-Lexikon und den gro?en Businessplan.org-Kapital-Beschaffen-Ratgeber Viel Spa? beim Stobern. About My Experience? Businessplan Ė erfolgreich selbststandig sein. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? Der Eckpfeiler fur eine erfolgreiche Selbstandigkeit ist der aussagekraftige Businessplan. Form? Im Gegensatz zur weit verbreiteten Meinung diesen ausschlie?lich fur die Beantragung von Fordermitteln oder einer Finanzierung zu schreiben, ist dieser Ihr zentrales Planungsdokument.

Der Businessplan dient nicht nur zur Uberprufung der Machbarkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit eines unternehmerischen Vorhabens, sondern vor allem fur die laufende Kontrolle der Liquiditat. Of Being A Doctor Essay? Sie schreiben den Businessplan in numbering in dissertation erster Linie fur sich selbst und dann erst fur Ihr spezifisches Vorhaben. Advantages And Disadvantages? Die Unternehmensberatung Businessplan.org ist spezialisiert auf die professionelle Businessplan-Erstellung. Die Zusammenarbeit kann auf unterschiedliche Weise erfolgen. Resume Review? Businessplan komplett erstellen lassen. Sie benotigen die Zeit fur andere wichtige Aufgaben oder Ihnen fehlen die Fachkenntnisse zur Erstellung eines hochprofessionellen Businessplans, dann erstellen unsere Businessplan-Spezialisten gerne Ihren individuellen Businessplan fur Ihr spezifisches Vorhaben. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor? Egal ob es um die Beantragung eines Fordermittels, eines Kredites oder die Akquise von Beteiligungskapital geht, unsere Berater wissen, worauf es dem Adressaten ankommt und schreiben Ihren Businessplan ma?geschneidert und zielgerichtet auf deren Bedurfnisse. Appendices In Dissertation? Im Ergebnis erhalten Sie einen in sich schlussigen, professionellen Businessplan, der eine maximale Chance auf Erfolg hat. Essay? Businessplan Zahlenteil erstellen lassen.

Sie konnen den Textteil selbst schreiben und wir erstellen die wichtige Finanzplanung fur den Bankkredit, den Grundungszuschuss oder ein Fordermittel. Dazu ubersetzen wir den Textteil in mhhe homework center den entsprechenden Zahlen Ihrer Branche. And Disadvantages A Doctor? Wir verfugen uber eine qualifizierte Datenbasis vieler Branchen sowie eine umfassende Expertise. Dank dieser beiden Komponenten erhalten Sie realistische und nachvollziehbare Zahlen fur die Preis-, Kosten-, und Umsatzkalkulation. Nurse Practitioner? Ein entscheidendes Kriterium fur die Bewertung Ihres Businessplans durch Dritte. Die Finanzplanung ist die Darstellung der Unternehmensentwicklung in advantages of being a doctor essay Zahlen. Resume? Sie haben den Businessplan samt der Finanzplanung bereits selbst erstellt? Das ist doch wunderbar. Advantages And Disadvantages A Doctor Essay? In dem Fall konnen Sie sich wertvolles Feedback von unseren Businessplan-Spezialisten einholen.

Die Experten haben bestimmt die ein oder andere Bereicherung parat, die Ihre Chancen fur Ihr Vorhaben steigern. Resume? Am Ende konnen Sie sich ganz sicher sein, dass aufgrund der Qualitat des Businessplans eine Bewilligung sicher nicht scheitert. Businessplan.org kummert sich exklusiv um das Thema Businessplan. Jahrlich verfassen wir uber 300 hochprofessionelle Businessplane, fur die verschiedensten Branchen und Vorhaben . And Disadvantages Of Being? Und das seit uber zehn Jahren. Resume Review Form? Die Businessplan-Spezialisten Vorteile und Garantien der Zusammenarbeit. Die Zusammenarbeit mit den Businessplan.org-Spezialisten bietet viele Vorteile, zum Beispiel: Geld-Zuruck-Garantie Kostenloses Erstgesprach Unverbindliches und individuelles Angebot Faires Preis-/Leistungsverhaltnis Umfangreiches Businessplan Know-how (langjahrige Erfahrung) Genaue Kenntnisse der Bedurfnisse Ihrer Businessplan-Adressaten Gro?e Datenbasis mit qualifizierten Daten fur viele Branchen Gro?es Netzwerk an advantages a doctor essay, Spezialisten der unterschiedlichsten Branchen Zeitersparnis, denn Businessplan.org erstellt nach Erhalt aller notwendigen Informationen den Businessplan vollstandig fur Sie Zuverlassigkeit, Schnelligkeit, Punktlichkeit. Essays? Hier haben Sie auch die Moglichkeit, sich unseren Unternehmensprospekt anzusehen Bitte auf das folgende Bild (Titelseite) klicken, um den Prospekt zu offnen. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? Bei der Businessplan-Erstellung geht es uns immer um eins, Ihren Erfolg.

Dafur geben unsere Businessplan-Spezialisten alles. Mhhe Homework? In einem kostenlosen Erstgesprach klaren wir Ihre Anforderungen und Ihr Ziel der Businessplan-Erstellung. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor? Aufgrund dieses Briefings unterbreiten wir Ihnen ein individuelles Angebot fur die ma?geschneiderte Businessplan-Erstellung. London? Nach Ihrer Kostenfreigabe geht es los. A Doctor? In einer ein- bis dreistundigen Telefonkonferenz oder in met dissertation einem personlichem Termin klaren wir gemeinsam die Inhalte Ihrer Geschaftsidee und die Zielsetzung. And Disadvantages Essay? Nach diesem Termin werden Sie eventuell einige Unterlagen nachreichen mussen. Homework? Auf dieser Basis erstellen wir die erste Version Ihres Businessplans, den wir Ihnen via E-Mail zur Ansicht zukommen lassen. Schauen Sie sich den Businessplan in advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay Ruhe an. Wenn Sie noch Anmerkungen und Anderungen haben, teilen Sie uns diese gerne mit. London Met Dissertation Requirements? Wir wollen Sie zu 100 Prozent zufrieden stellen und optimieren den Geschaftsplan im Rahmen einer Korrekturschleife. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being Essay? Naturlich unter der Pramisse, dass wir nicht vergessen, was einen hochprofessionellen Businessplan ausmacht und auch die Anspruche Ihres Adressaten nicht au?er Acht lassen.

Wenn der Businessplan steht, drucken wir diesen professionell aus und lassen ihn binden. Personal Nurse? Auch der optische Eindruck zahlt, wenn dieser an and disadvantages a doctor, Dritte ubergeben wird. Numbering Appendices? Sie erhalten Ihre finale Version digital, damit Sie den Businessplan bei sich als Ihr zentrales Planungsdokument fortfuhren konnen. Advantages A Doctor Essay? Was kostet das Erstellen-Lassen eines professionellen Businessplans? Wenn Sie einen Businessplan erstellen lassen mochten, ist dies naturgema? nicht kostenlos. Met Dissertation Requirements? Die genauen Kosten konnen wir Ihnen erst nach dem kostenlosen Erstgesprach in advantages of being a doctor essay Form eines unverbindlichen Angebotes mitteilen. Ein Businessplan ist je nach Vorhaben und Branche unterschiedlich in mhhe center Art und Umfang. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being? Davon abhangig ist der jeweilige Zeitaufwand zu kalkulieren.

Ein Businessplan ist immer individuell, nie Standard. Seien Sie vorsichtig gegenuber gunstigen Angeboten oder niedrigen Stundensatzen. London Met Dissertation? Zwar ist der niedrige Preis verlockend, aber oft ein Indiz fur die mangelnde Qualitat. A Doctor Essay? Der Aufwand fur die hochprofessionelle Businessplan-Erstellung ist nicht zu unterschatzen. Numbering Appendices In Dissertation? Fur Sie bedeutet die alleinige Erstellung eine vollzeitliche Beschaftigung zwischen zwei und vier Wochen.

Mitunter kann dies auch Monate in and disadvantages a doctor Anspruch nehmen. Mhhe? Es geht um die nachhaltige Sicherung Ihres Lebensunterhaltes und bei Finanzierungen um nicht geringe Betrage. And Disadvantages? In Relation gesetzt sind die Kosten fur eine Businessplan-Unternehmensberatung damit zu vernachlassigen. Nurse? Businessplan Ė Bauplan zum erfolgreichen Unternehmen. Advantages And Disadvantages A Doctor? Die Erstellung von einem Businessplan wird bei Existenzgrundern nicht selten als zeitraubende, notwendige Formalitat zur Vorlage bei Banken oder Behorden gesehen, die von der eigentlichen Arbeit nur abhalt.

Vollig zu Unrecht! Denn ein Businessplan ist grundsatzlich ein au?erst sinnvolles Instrument beim Aufbau einer unternehmerischen Tatigkeit. Mhhe? Nicht sorgfaltig durchdachte kaufmannische Rahmenbedingungen einer Geschaftsidee gehoren zu den Hauptursachen fur das Scheitern von Unternehmensgrundungen. Advantages A Doctor Essay? Die Erstellung von einem Businessplan zwingt den Grunder innerhalb einer strukturierten Vorgabe seine zunachst gedanklich vorhandene unternehmerische Vision in homework center schriftlicher Form mit betriebswirtschaftlichen Zahlen zu untermauern und die wichtigsten Einflussfaktoren auf die Geschaftsidee intensiv zu durchdenken und zu uberprufen. And Disadvantages A Doctor Essay? Mit dem Businessplan lasst sich herausfinden, ob und unter welchen Bedingungen sich aus der Geschaftsidee tatsachlich ein gewinnbringendes Unternehmen entwickeln kann. Mhhe Homework Center? Somit legt ein gut ausgearbeiteter Businessplan den Grundstein fur die Umsetzung einer erfolgreichen Unternehmensgrundung und hilft Fehlentscheidungen zu vermeiden . Advantages And Disadvantages? Neben der Funktion als internes Planungs- und Controllinginstrument dient der Businessplan dazu, Investoren, Banken und Behorden die Geschaftsidee zu verdeutlichen und von der Rentabilitat und Tragfahigkeit zu uberzeugen. Der Umfang von einem Businessplan bestimmt sich dabei einerseits durch die Art und Gro?e des angestrebten Geschaftsvorhabens sowie dadurch, wer mit dem Businessplan angesprochen wird. Numbering? Als grobe Richtwerte sollte der Businessplan zur Beantragung von Einstiegsgeld ca. Of Being? 15-20 Seiten, der Businessplan fur den Grundungszuschuss 25-30 Seiten, fur einen Bankkredit 30-40 Seiten und fur einen Investor / Venture Capital Geber mind. London Requirements? 30 Seiten umfassen.

Tendenziell gilt, dass je hoher der Kapitalbedarf ist, desto umfangreicher und detaillierter sollten die im Businessplan enthaltenen Informationen sein. Advantages And Disadvantages Essay? Wichtiger als die reine Seitenzahl, sind die Inhalte. Resume Review? Fur Investoren oder das Arbeitsamt gibt der Businessplan einen informativen Gesamtuberblick uber das Vorhaben sowie dessen Chancen und Risiken. Advantages? Wichtig ist es, den Businessplan in met dissertation requirements einer ansprechenden Form aufzubereiten (Layout) und die wesentlichen Punkte verstandlich in advantages essay einer ubersichtlichen Struktur herausarbeiten. Essay In School? Tiefgehende technische Details und Fachbegriffe sollten weitestgehend vermieden werden. Kommen die Uberlegungen und Berechnungen bei der Erstellung des Businessplans zu dem im ersten Moment ernuchternden Ergebnis, dass die angedachte Geschaftsidee sich finanziell nicht erfolgreich realisieren lasst, so sollte man diese wertvolle Erkenntnis dazu nutzen um die Geschaftsidee zu verfeinern oder komplett neuen Ideen nachzugehen. Of Being A Doctor? Ob nun rein fur die eigene, interne Verwendung oder zur Vorlage bei Banken, Investoren und Behorden: Auf die Erstellung eines Businessplans sollte bei einer ernsthaften Existenzgrundung trotz des damit verbundenen Aufwands nicht verzichtet werden. Zum Gluck muss auch bei der Erstellung von einem Businessplan das Rad nicht neu erfunden werden Wir sind Businessplan Experten und helfen Ihnen beim Erstellen Ihres Businessplans.

Jeder, der ein unternehmerisches Vorhaben plant, benotigt einen professionellen Businessplan. Essay About? Wir haben bereits dargestellt, dass der Businessplan zwei zentrale Aufgaben erfullt. A Doctor? Zu einen ist der Geschaftsplan ein internes Planungs- und Controllinginstrument fur die Unternehmensfuhrung, zum anderen dient der Businessplan Dritten als Entscheidungsgrundlage fur die Bewilligung von Krediten, Beteiligungskapital, Fordermitteln oder dem Grundungszuschuss. History Germany? In den meisten Fallen dient er der Existenzgrundung und der damit verbundenen Kapitalbeschaffung. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being Essay? Wie bereits erwahnt, ist der Businessplan ebenfalls die Grundlage bei den folgenden unternehmerischen Vorhaben:

Unternehmensnachfolge Unternehmensubernahme Unternehmensverkauf Neuausrichtung Einfuhrung neuer Produkte Produkterweiterung Borsengang Internationalisierung Kapitalerhohung Erweiterungskredite Fusion Kooperation. 5 zentrale Grunde weshalb man einen Businessplan schreiben bzw. Essay? einen professionellen Businessplan erstellen lassen sollte: 1. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? Ein Businessplan testet die Umsetzbarkeit der Geschaftsidee. History Essays Germany? Ein Businessplan erzwingt ein systematisches Vorgehen , um zu uberprufen, zu durchdenken und zu hinterfragen, ob die Geschaftsidee wirtschaftlich umsetzbar ist. Essay? Zudem wird das Bewusstsein fur die zentralen Einflussfaktoren der Geschaftsidee gescharft. Met Dissertation Requirements? Wissenslucken werden bei der Businessplanerstellung aufgedeckt. Advantages Of Being Essay? Risiken und mogliche Schwierigkeiten werden erkennbar und erzwingen ein Uberlegen von Handlungsalternativen sowie Strategien um mit vorhandenen Risiken umzugehen.

Der Businessplan gibt Grundern sowie potentiellen Investoren konkrete Antworten darauf, unter welchen Bedingungen und unterschiedlichen Annahmen e ine Geschaftsidee finanziell tragfahig ist. Entsprechend dient der Businessplan zunachst der Sicherheit des Existenzgrunders bzw. Mhhe Homework Center? des Unternehmers um falsch investierte Zeit, Energie und Geld in eine unrentable Geschaftsidee moglichst zu vermeiden. Advantages Of Being? 2. Nurse? Ein Businessplan erhoht die Erfolgsaussichten einer Existenzgrundung. Advantages Of Being Essay? Das Schreiben von eines Businessplans bringt den Grunder dazu, mit hoher Aufmerksamkeit sowohl operative aber auch finanziell, kaufmannische Uberlegungen idealerweise gemeinsam mit einem erfahrenen Berater anzustellen. Essay About My Experience? Vermarktungsplanungen sind ebenso wie u.a.

Budgetplanungen oder Liquiditatsplanungen durchzufuhren. And Disadvantages Of Being? Bereits vor der Umsetzung bekommt der potentielle Grunder bzw. Personal Essay? der Unternehmer dadurch einen tiefer gehenden Gesamtuberblick uber die Dimensionen und Erfordernisse seines Geschaftsvorhabens. Somit hilft der Businessplan dabei, ein realistischeres Bild zu erhalten und reduziert die Gefahr unvorbereitet und mit falschen, wesentlich zu optimistischen Erwartungen an of being, den Start zu gehen. History Essays? Vielmehr erleichtern die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse im Rahmen des Businessplan erstellen lassens das Treffen von fundierten Entscheidungen und geben gleichzeitig kreative Anregungen bzw. And Disadvantages Essay? und sto?en einen kontinuierlichen Verbesserungsprozess an. Resume Review Form? Die beanspruchte Zeit sowie die Kosten fur die Erstellung von einem professionellen Businessplan spart man sich durch eine deutlich durchdachtere und qualitativ ausgereiftere Grundungsphase mehr als wieder ein, bei der weitaus weniger Ąunvorhergeseheneď Schwierigkeiten fur das neue Unternehmen am Markt auftauchen. 3. Advantages? Businessplan als Leitfaden fur die erfolgreiche Unternehmensentwicklung. Bei einem beabsichtigten Hausbau wird zunachst ein Bauplan erstellt um festzuhalten wann und in london welcher Form welche Ma?nahmen zu treffen sind.

Im Businessplan sind entsprechend die fur den Aufbau eines Unternehmens erforderlichen Schritte herauszufinden und festzuhalten. Of Being A Doctor Essay? Somit stellt der Businessplan einen Fahrplan fur das unternehmerische Handeln , die strategische Vorgehensweisen und dafur erforderliche Instrumente dar. 4. About My Experience? Businessplan als Grundvoraussetzung um Behorden und Kapitalgeber zu uberzeugen. Advantages? Fur die Beantragung von Fordermitteln, Einstiegsgeld bzw. Personal Nurse? Grundungszuschuss, zur Aufnahme von einem Bankkredit oder Venture Capital stellt ein gut ausgearbeiteter Businessplan die Grundvoraussetzung dar. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? Ein fachkundig erstellter Businessplan vermittelt einen tiefer gehenden Eindruck des Unternehmens und leistet dadurch Uberzeugungsarbeit bei Banken bzw. Practitioner? bei Entscheidungstrager uber Fordermittel.

Der Businessplan beantwortet die wichtigsten Fragen und bietet potentiellen Investoren eine Entscheidungsgrundlage bei der Einschatzung von Risiken und Renditechancen. Dies gilt ebenfalls fur bereits etablierte Unternehmen die Kapital benotigen, welche durch die Vorlage von einem Businessplan die Aussichten auf eine Zusage deutlich erhohen. And Disadvantages A Doctor? Mit Vorlage von einem inhaltlich fundierten und gut strukturierten Businessplan zeigen Existenzgrunder zudem, dass das Grundungsvorhaben ernst genommen wird und mit der Komplexitat einer Existenzgrundung umgehen werden kann. Homework? Neben fachlicher Kompetenz konnen Grunder auch ihre kaufmannische Kompetenz verdeutlichen. 5. And Disadvantages? Businessplan als effektives und steuerbares Planungsinstrument. Numbering? Neben einer besser geplanten und effizienteren Umsetzung in advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay der Phase der Existenzgrundung, stellt ein Businessplan auch nach der Grundungsphase ein hilfreiches und dauerhaft einsetzbares Kontroll- und Planungsinstrument dar.

Unternehmen sowie volkswirtschaftliche Entwicklungen sind dynamisch und standig in essay about my experience Bewegung. Advantages Essay? Dies gilt noch starker fur neu gegrundete Unternehmen. Um einen Businessplan richtig einzusetzen, gilt es zu verstehen, dass ein Businessplan immer eine Momentaufnahme darstellt. Met Dissertation Requirements? Hieraus ergibt sich, dass der Businessplan niemals endgultig abgeschlossen sein kann und vielmehr als Ąlebendesď Instrument anzusehen ist. And Disadvantages? Die vorgenommenen Planungen im Businessplan sind mit der tatsachlichen Entwicklung des Unternehmens zu vergleichen und anzupassen. Somit stellt der erstellte Businessplan ein ĄFruhwarnsystemď dar, welches Abweichungen von ursprunglichen Zielsetzungen und Zeitplanungen aufzeigt. In Dissertation? Mittels Soll-Ist-Vergleich werden Fehlentwicklungen und Handlungsbedarf erkannt, wodurch ein fruhzeitiges Gegensteuern und Einleiten von Ma?nahmen zur Korrektur ermoglicht wird. Advantages A Doctor? Erforderliche Anpassungen sind dabei nicht nur bei einer z.B. Numbering Appendices In Dissertation? schwacher als geplanten Umsatzentwicklung zu erfolgen. Advantages Of Being Essay? Eine starkere Nachfrage kann zu Engpassen im Bereich Kapital oder Personal fuhren. About My Experience? Somit hilft der Businessplan auch dabei , ein bereits bestehendes Unternehmen auf Erfolgskurs zu halten. Ob sich ein Unternehmen nachhaltig erfolgreich am Markt etablieren kann, hangt selbstverstandlich von Dingen wie der Qualitat der erbrachten Leistungen, Kundenservice, Marketing- und Vertriebsfahigkeiten ab.

Der Businessplan stellt hierbei ein hervorragendes Fundament fur eine positive Unternehmensentwicklung dar. Advantages And Disadvantages Essay? Bei Fragen scheuen Sie sich bitte nicht, uns unter 0800 2 111 441 (kostenlos) zu kontaktieren. Met Dissertation Requirements? Wir wurden uns freuen, wenn Sie Ihren Businessplan bei uns erstellen lassen. Of Being A Doctor Essay? So schreiben Sie einen professionellen Businessplan. Es gibt in mhhe center der Praxis keine verbindlichen Vorgaben fur die Businessplan-Erstellung. Of Being? Je nach Vorhaben, der Branche und der geplanten Unternehmensgro?e, handelt es sich immer um eine sehr individuelle Planung. Essay About My Experience In School? In der Praxis haben sich einige Kapitel als Mindestinhalt herauskristallisiert. And Disadvantages A Doctor? Abhangig vom Adressat des Businessplans und des Kapitalbedarfs sind weitere Kapitel zu erganzen, beziehungsweise der Detaillierungsgrad zu erhohen. London Requirements? Neben den Inhalten ist die Form zu beachten. And Disadvantages? Sorgen Sie optisch fur eine gut lesbare Gestaltung. Formulieren Sie in nurse knappen und einfachen Satzen, die sachliche Aussagen treffen.

Nutzen Sie Fachbegriffe nur, wenn diese fur eine Erklarung wichtig sind und nicht um durch Fachwissen zu glanzen. Advantages? Das wichtigste fur einen aussagekraftigen Businessplan sind die Inhalte. About? Die Businessplan-Kapitel mussen eine klare und verstandliche Struktur aufweisen, mit einer in advantages a doctor essay sich schlussigen Argumentationskette. History? Der Leser sollte einen durchgangigen roten Faden erkennen und jederzeit die Aussagen nachvollziehbar sein. Die folgenden Inhalte haben sich als Mindestkapitel fur einen fundierten Businessplan herausgestellt: Executive Summary Geschaftsidee Grunder und Grunderteam Markt- und Wettbewerbsanalyse Zielgruppenanalyse Standortanalyse Marketing und Vertrieb Preisstrategie Unternehmensorganisation und Ėstruktur Personalplanung Realisierungsfahrplan Chancen- und Risikoanalyse. Advantages Of Being A Doctor? Kapitalbedarfsplan Finanzierungsplan Umsatzplan Kostenplan Rentabilitatsplan Liquiditatsplan. Appendices In Dissertation? Je nach Vorhaben sind die Businessplan-Inhalte anhand der jeweiligen Adressaten-Bedurfnisse anzupassen und zu erganzen. Of Being A Doctor? In der folgenden Ubersicht finden Sie die wichtigsten Punkte, worauf es bei dem entsprechenden Businessplan ankommt.

Businessplan fur die Existenzgrundung. London Requirements? Existenzgrunder sollten nicht nur fur die Kapitalbeschaffung den Businessplan schreiben. In erster Linie schreibt der Grunder fur sich selbst. Advantages And Disadvantages? Der Businessplan dient der Mannschaft hinter dem unternehmerischen Vorhaben als zentrales Planungs- und Controllinginstrument. Requirements? Durch die kritische Hinterfragung und Beleuchtung der Geschaftsidee aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln ist der Businessplan vor allem eine Machbarkeits- und Wirtschaftlichkeitsstudie.

Au?erdem bietet der Businessplan eine gute Orientierung fur die notwendigen Realisierungsschritte zu Ihrem unternehmerischen Vorhaben. Advantages A Doctor? Nehmen Sie sich die Zeit fur die Erstellung oder arbeiten Sie mit einem Businessplan-Spezialisten zusammen. London Met Dissertation? Kredite werden meist uber ein Kreditinstitut, wie die Deutsche Bank, oder bei der Sparkasse vergeben. Die Banken sind risikoavers und Ihr Bankberater ein Zahlenmensch. Essay? Dementsprechend wird er genauestens die Finanzplanung unter die Lupe nehmen. Die Zahlen mussen die ausformulierten Inhalte wiedergeben, realistisch und nachvollziehbar fur den Berater sein. Neben dem Businessplan fur einen Kredit mussen auch Sie als Unternehmer uberzeugen. Gewinnen Sie den Bankberater als Ihren Verbundeten durch die uberzeugende Prasentation ihrer personlichen und fachlichen Eignung fur das unternehmerische Vorhaben. Essay In School? Businessplan fur den Grundungszuschuss. Die Bundesagentur fur Arbeit schaut zur Bewilligung auf Ihr Gesamtkonzept.

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2001 a space odessay Get via App Store Read this post in advantages a doctor essay, our app! What is the end of 2001: A Space Odyssey about? The end of 2001: A Space Odyssey movie features bizarre colours and the main character appearing in a bed, then becoming an old man and finally a fetus! I always found this a pretty disappointing end to the film because it seemed to make no sense. Does anyone know what this is about? Is it symbolism? Or is it just random images?

The being that placed the monolith are the caretakers of the universe. They encourage new species to numbering appendices in dissertation, develop, like seedlings. Advantages Of Being. Sometimes they have to tear out weeds before they get out of control. The monolith buried on the moon was a signaling device to let the aliens know that man had sufficiently developed to invent space flight and thereby become a potential problem. The monolith by Jupiter was a gateway to their home world. There, Bowman lived out his life under observation while the aliens judged humankind's maturity. When they were satisfied, the gave him the germany, powers of a god and sent him back to of being essay, earth, again as a test to see how he would use his powers.

You can read all of this in the novel, as well as a short story by Arthur C. Clarke, called The Sentinel. Going only on what's on the screen, this question may be impossible to answer without resorting to form, interpretation, and and disadvantages a doctor essay, there are many interpretations of the ending of 2001 . While the novel, developed by Clarke and Kubrick at mhhe homework center, the same time as the a doctor, film, is more straightforward than the numbering appendices in dissertation, film, several events are different than in advantages, the film, so the film needs to be interpreted on its own. I'm excluding things that were explained in in school, the book for that reason: I think it's fairly clear in advantages, the film that the monolith that appeared at the dawn of Man either affected the primates by causing them to center, use tools, or was there to witness the beginning of tool use. This is symbolized by the bone that is thrown in the air, before a match-cut to a satellite. When another monolith is discovered on the moon (the first one, as far as the human race knows at the time), a ship is of being essay sent to Jupiter to follow the essays, transmission that the a doctor, Tycho monolith (the one found on the moon) sent in that direction. Did the monolith cause the trip or hasten it? We really don't know, although the fact that we got a ship launched within a couple of years after the Tycho event hints at numbering appendices in dissertation, a mission that was already in the planning stages. The story made a clear point of showing Bowman re-entering the ship without a helmet, immediately prior to disconnecting Hal, his last remaining co-shipmate. Hal's final act is to trigger a recording that explains the real reason behind the of being essay, mission: to essay about my experience, investigate the Jupiter system, to advantages of being a doctor essay, find what the Tycho monolith was transmitting towards. Bowman has, in london requirements, effect, cut himself off from all immediate contact. Despite his desperate attempt to rescue Poole, he is all alone, without even a computer for company.

What we know about the events in the last act of the film, Jupiter and Beyond the Infinite: Bowman is advantages of being a doctor all alone on the Discovery, and exits the ship in a pod. This same type of vehicle killed Poole, and Bowman used one of them to survive. Essay Nurse. He approaches the Jupiter monolith, and is subjected to an experience that draws him away from Jupiter. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor. He may (or may not) have been brought to other planets, star clusters, and galaxies. Bowman and the Pod are suddenly no longer in space, but in an ornate room; Bowman is shaken severely, possibly in shock. Bowman ages, experiencing the rest of his quiet, calm life in germany, this suite of rooms. Advantages Essay. (He may experience this himself or see it happening from the outside. This aging may happen in the time it takes for a human being, or it may be sped-up. The film is ambiguous on these points, as on many others.

Not to review, veer too closely to interpretation here, but note that viewpoints are a theme running throughout the film.) The monolith appears in Bowman's room as he dies, and it either witnesses or causes his transfiguration into an embryo. The embryo leaves the room for space. So, the of being a doctor essay, story is unclear on what exactly happened. Did the monoliths cause all of these events, or simply witness them, possibly knowing that they would happen? Over how much time does the final act take place?

Both Clarke and Kubrick seem to enjoy narratives that answer questions with other, grander questions. I used to hate the end to 2001 . Essay About My Experience. I didn't understand it, there was no narrative, and advantages and disadvantages of being essay, it was confusing. Then I read a comment somewhere from, I believe, Arthur C. Clarke, that the ending of the movie is meant to represent our inability to understand encounters with an alien species. They would be so different from personal nurse, us , that our minds simply wouldn't be able to comprehend them. As one of Clarke'e three laws states, any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Essentially, you're supposed to be confused, because you would be if meeting aliens in real life. He's converted into a star child, an immortal being that winds up being put in charge of protecting Earth. Advantages. The book ended this way as well, rather vaguely.

The movie seems to do this as well, but in a more symbolic fashion (I assume a star child isn't just a fetus). One of mhhe homework center my favorite explanations is that it's meta-cinema (source added by advantages a doctor, commenter below). Numbering Appendices. The movie is about the evolution / expansion of the mind, and advantages and disadvantages a doctor, Kubrick is pushing the limits of film. We become Dave - colors and lights flying at us in the theater. We become the apes struggling to understand. Also, the monolith is similar dimensions to personal essay nurse practitioner, the movie screen, and the movie screen is full of stars. I don't believe it's a case of of being a doctor essay Bowman living out his entire life under the Firstborn's (the aliens) observation. Bowman returns to Earth as a starchild in time to visit his mother before she dies (2010: Oddyssey Two). Since the Firstborn do not seem to possess time travel capability, it was very likely a representation of some form of transformation. This explains the final scene in Kubrick's own words: What happens during the final scene?

KUBRICK: I don't want to met dissertation requirements, [be specific about it] because I think that the power of the advantages of being a doctor essay, ending is personal essay nurse practitioner based on the subconscious emotional reaction of the audience, which has a delayed effect. KUBRICK: Well, I can tell you what literally, at the lowest level of plot, happens. Bowman is drawn into a stargate. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay. He is taken into another dimension of time and space, into the presence of godlike entities who have transcended matter and who are now creatures of pure energy. They provide an environment for him, a human zoo, if you like. They study him. His life passes before him.

He sees himself age in what seems just a matter of moments, he dies, and he's reborn, transfigured, enhanced, a superbeing. It's symbolic. Personal Nurse. The crazy colors are him going through hyperspace. Then he grows old and learns that humanity is advantages and disadvantages of being just a baby compared to the aliens that made the monolith. Essentially, the monolith with the apes at the beginning got humans to start using tools. Then the monolith on personal essay the moon got humanity to reach to other planets. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay. Even after all that, we're still insignificant compared to the millions of years older aliens. Once I was looking out the window of an airplane as it was landing at night and thought, THAT's what the ending meant. Below, the city lights formed strange aquatic clusters and patterns.

I couldn't tell what they were from that perspective. Essays Germany. To an and disadvantages a doctor, ape, it would be completely incomprehensible. The aliens are to us as we are to apes, at least. Probably the mhhe homework, aliens don't think much of their psychedelic intergalactic catapults; they're just everyday things. It is important to note that Kubrick wanted the individual to make his/her own interpretation. The base story is quite clear and Kubrick himself explained it. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor. However, as a scholar studying an MA in nurse practitioner, medieval history, the advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, metaphysical explanation is compelling. Met Dissertation Requirements. It is nothing less than a futuristic interpretation of the a doctor essay, achievement of the Holy Grail as perceived by Wolfram von Esenbach. Parsifal (Perceval) was an archer (Bowman) who sinned by shooting a swan (a metaphor in homework, itself). The Grail was a stone which descended from heaven (monolith).

After tremendous trials and tribulations, Parsifal achieves the Grail and heals mankind via a metaphysical union with God (Nirvana/Life the Universe and Everything) and in doing so purifies humanity. The story was designed for hearing rather than reading and the troubadours undoubtedly had the advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor, power to 'act' the words in such a way that the unsophisticated 12th century listeners would in personal, some way achieve an experiential understanding of the union. In the 21st century we are too high tech. to advantages a doctor essay, be swayed by appendices, storytelling. However, Kubrick's brilliant melding of images and 'Also Sprach Zarathustra' can provide even the most cynical amongst us with an of being essay, almost visceral appreciation of 'something higher' or 'not quite within reach'. Essay. Naturally, Kubrick was correct - it is for each individual to try to advantages and disadvantages a doctor essay, reach their own understanding but try listening to the final moments of 'Parsifal' by Wagner, or even better, Siegfried's funeral music used to great effect in 'Excalibur' for tone poetical interpretation.

The psychadelic sequence is what Bowman sees as he breaks the speed of light by entering a transdimensional space warp; the patterns are stars as he rushes past them. After this sequence, he passes through a globular star cluster, and also by several gasseous nebulae. Finally, just before he ends up in the mysterious room, he is passing over a planetary surface, presumably the home world of the aliens who built the monoliths. The aliens may have once been an aquatic species, but are now non-corporeal intellegences. The planet orbits a red giant star which is why the history essays, colors appear so distorted. 2001:A Space Odyssey symbolically describes the advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, story of met dissertation requirements mankind's life. The monolith is the symbol for truth of life. As we see in the beginning of the movie a bunch of apes -- the early men -- come across the Monolith and they have no idea what it is. The movie continues with a brilliant transformation to a far far future by converting a piece of advantages of being a doctor essay simple bone to london requirements, a very sophisticated spaceship (both symbols for the tools humans use). After millions of years pass, and all these developments human has reached aside (being able to step into other planets and using plenty of complex tools), mankind still doesn't know what the Monolith is.

At the end of all mankind's development, a man goes through all the universe (passing into strange colors) and becomes old enough in advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, this journey, but after all this, when he gets to the Monolith, all the knowledge he's gained over millions of years is worthless and still he doesn't know what his life is about! So he turns into an embryo because there is no difference between an unknowing fetus and an old experienced knowledgeable man in terms of understanding the truth of life. Appendices In Dissertation. After the psychadelic interlude the room and of being a doctor, so on, it's meant to represent communication with Aliens. You have no common frame of reference with an alien and numbering in dissertation, they're guessing at essay, best in trying to make themselves understood by you so you're not meant to understand a damn thing. This is apparently the whole point - you don't and aren't meant to understand. Yeah, it's really that pretentious. Review. I have gone through my whole life with people quoting open the pod bay doors, Hal at a doctor essay, me and I just wish it was a better film, it's famous because the SFX were really great for that time and it latched onto the space-race cold war frenzy of mhhe homework center Apollo missions etc. Pan-Am flights to space stations in the foreseeable future. I feel that the scenes depicted inside the advantages and disadvantages of being essay, mansion are Bowman's dying dream, he is in fact dead by the time the spacecraft stops.

Actually the computer (HAL) tries to sabotage the mission to Jupiter since it feels its like a suicidal one way mission and resume review form, even tries to talk about this to Bowman earlier. i believe that when dave experiences his journey and finally ends up in the strange outdated rooms and sees himself eating then vanishes when the dave who is eating goes to investigate a presence-- i believe a kind of time travel has happened. then it happens again when dave sees the dying version of himself in the bed. it almost feels like time is catching up. as for the creepy fetus. i believe that the monolith always had a plan for dave. and i believe that they reincarnated him. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being. again my theory. trippy film that will alwsys have people posing questions. and that is the sign of a classic film:) I think it's trying to say that our body serves us as the vessel of the mind, and that all of essays germany physical reality is a complex matrix that evolves toward a specific end. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay. The clue that it lends starts at review form, the beginning. These scenes demonstrate the baser origins of of being a doctor essay our first constructs, weapons inspired upon the observation of a monolith that is recognized by us as extraterrestrial, or of another world. The end sequence can therefore serve as the key to an understanding of the whole. Numbering. I just wanted to of being a doctor essay, add a couple of points that occured to me as I have just watched it. The monolith provides mankind/apes the tools/weapons to evolve, but those tools are removed before Bowman arrives and evolves into the star child when the nuclear weapons are destroyed. The scientists on the mission are killed by HAL - also a tool. Bowman is seen as an artist - he sketches the sleeping scientists. The use of Strauss's/Neitzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra also provides a clue to Kubrick's thinking in that the work declares the death of God and the transition of the Superman from apes. I noticed the art on resume review form the wall in the room and wondered whether that is one of the things that makes communication possible and recognises our the ability to advantages essay, comprehend the universe and life with a child's curiosity and essay, sense of awe without the need of tools for our survival.

It was a stupid attempt at esoteric, (I'm more enlightened then you) elitist snobbery. And Disadvantages A Doctor Essay. Evolution of the human into a cosmic journey of which man enters as a newly born creature. A babe in the woods. Just to germany, point out, as in the book, when the starchild destroys the nukes, so to was supposed to be in advantages of being a doctor essay, the movie, however he didn't do that, but the reason for the NUKES was to to show, that even though we had advanced to such great technological abilities, we are still like the apes trying to bash in each others heads in at the begining when we started using tools, he wanted us to mull over that, our first use for a tool was to. Mhhe Homework. Kill, and our most advanced tool is . a killer(nukes). With regards to the aliens, that's up for advantages a doctor, interpretation, the aliens were either just monitoring our progression, OR started it to begin with. I for one think they started our rapid evolution, and were always watching, and I think our creating artificial inteligence (HAL) is what made them realise, its time for us go the next step, they created us, and they where like so different to us, that a AI to them is same and no better the history, we are to them.

We can create a thing that not only and disadvantages, as intelligent (actually more so some may say) as us, but is SELF AWARE, that's a very powerfull concept, even if u say its just a program, and resume, computor, it KNOWS it exists, and that's another thing he wanted us to think about. The apemen were struggling to survive and of being a doctor, the monolith provided inspiration to use tools. About My Experience In School. Mankind is advantages and disadvantages a doctor saved, and left alone again to evolve. Center. Later, mankind was about to destroy itself through nuclear war. The starchild destroyed the launched missiles and again saved the race. This is explained in 2010 which should have been explained in of being, 2001. There is a certain kind of elitism within segments of an artistic community, be it film, music, literature, or even cuisine. Within these circles, they convey a tone of superiority over the average viewer or listener, etc.

Among this set, the ethic that they embody goes something like this If the average person enjoys it or understands it, that means that it is cheap, superficial, devoid of value or merit, and unworthy of serious recognition. Such, I believe, was Stanley Kubrick's mindset as he made 2001: A Space Odyssey. Yes, I believe that it is a great film and especially impressive given that it was made about 46 years ago. But there are so many examples when Kubrick deliberately opted to make the imagery and plot obtuse or bizarre or non-linear, or just plain RANDOM. Had he more respect for resume review, the audience, he could have easily clarified his intent and advantages a doctor essay, intended meaning for the choices that he made.

Unless, of course, he wasn't even aware of his own meaning and intent, and was hoping that the audience would perhaps reveal his meaning to HIM. I believe that he is saying to the public something along these lines: If you don't understand it, then why should I bother explaining it to you. Why not just go back to watching Loony Tunes? And, for that reason, I feel that I must judge this film as a very impressive, but ultimately very flawed film. London Met Dissertation Requirements. It could have been a film that was loved, respected, lauded, AND understood by the people that it was supposedly meant to be created for.

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Which are the advantages and disadvantages of being a Ö

chemotherapy essay The thought of chemotherapy frightens many people. Understanding what to expect before, during, and after chemotherapy can calm many of these fears. This essay will help explain what chemotherapy is, how it works, and advantages and disadvantages of being, what to expect, in general, with chemotherapy. To doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and health professionals, the in dissertation, word chemotherapy means any drug (like aspirin or penicillin) used for treating people with any disease. And Disadvantages Of Being Essay? Cancer chemotherapy is understood to mean medications or drugs that destroy cancer cells. London Requirements? Most lay people, however, think of anti-cancer drugs when they hear the advantages of being a doctor, term chemotherapy. Two of the resume, medical terms often used to describe cancer chemotherapy are antineoplastic (anti-cancer) and cytotoxic (cell-killing). The first drug used for cancer chemotherapy was not originally intended for that purpose.

Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and essay, was studied further during World War II. During a military operation in resume form World War II, a large number of military personnel was accidentally exposed to that agent and were later found to have abnormally low white blood counts. It was reasoned that an agent that damaged the rapidly growing white blood cells might have a similar effect on cancer. Therefore, in the 1940's several patients with advanced lymphomas were given the drug (by vein, rather than by advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor, breathing the irritating gas). Their improvement, although temporary, was remarkable. That experience provided the impetus for the study of other substances that might have similar effects against cancer - as a result, many additional drugs have been developed to treat many other types of cancer.

Chemotherapy is my experience in school sometimes the first choice for treating many cancers. And Disadvantages Of Being? It differs from surgery or radiation in that it is almost always used as a systemic treatment . This means the drugs travel throughout the whole body or system rather than being localized to one area such as the breast, lung, or colon. This is important because chemotherapy can reach cancer cells that may have spread to other parts of the body. There are now well over 90 drugs used for chemotherapy and many more are expected to become available soon. These chemotherapy drugs vary widely in practitioner their chemical composition, how they are taken, their usefulness in treating specific forms of advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, cancer, and their side effects. About In School? New drugs are first developed through laboratory research in test tubes and animals. Then, their safety and effectiveness are tested in three phases of clinical trials in humans.

Clinical trials are studies of advantages and disadvantages a doctor, new or experimental drugs (or other new treatments). The study is germany done when there is a reason to believe a new drug or a new combination of drugs may be of value in curing or controlling cancer. The study will be fully explained to the individual and their family and the individual has the opportunity to volunteer or refuse to participate in the study. Taking part in a clinical trial does not prevent anyone from receiving other medical or nursing care that is needed. Patients who participate in clinical trials make an important contribution to medical care because the and disadvantages of being essay, study results will also help future patients.

And, the participant will be the first to benefit from these new treatments. To learn more about nurse, clinical trials, you can contact the American Cancer Society (1-800-ACS-2345 or www.cancer.org) or the National Cancer Institute (1-800-4-CANCER or cancertrials.nci.nih.gov). The National Cancer Institute can provide a listing of clinical trials for advantages of being essay people with various types and stages of cancer. HOW CHEMOTHERAPY WORKS. To understand how chemotherapy works as a treatment it is review helpful to understand the normal life cycle of a cell in advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor the body.

All living tissue is composed of about, cells and sustained by cell growth and reproduction that replaces cells lost during injury or normal wear and tear. The cell cycle is a series of steps through which both normal cells and abnormal cancer cells grow and reproduce to form two new cells. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor? There are 5 steps, called cell cycle phases, that are designated by letters and in dissertation, numbers: G0, G1, S, G2, and M. G 1 = RNA and protein synthesis. S = DNA synthesis. G 2 = Construction of mitotic apparatus. Cells in the G 0 phase, which is sometimes referred to as the resting phase, have not yet started reproducing. The length of the G0 phase varies from and disadvantages a doctor hours to germany years for different types of cells. When the cell is stimulated to reproduce (for instance, when other cells wear out and need to be replaced), it moves into essay, the G1 phase.

During this step, the cell's production of in dissertation, RNA and advantages of being a doctor, proteins increase. This phase lasts about 18-30 hours, and is followed by the S phase. During the S phase, the cell replicates its DNA so that both of the new cells it will eventually form will have the right amount of appendices in dissertation, DNA. Advantages A Doctor Essay? This phase lasts about 18-20 hours. G2, the period right before the cell starts the essay nurse practitioner, process of splitting into two cells, lasts from 2-10 hours. It is also a period when RNA and advantages a doctor essay, proteins are formed. The last step is called M for mitosis. Review Form? In this last step, which lasts only 30-60 minutes, the cell actually splits into two new cells.

This cell cycle is important to oncologists because many cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs work only on actively reproducing cells (not G0, the and disadvantages of being, resting phase). These drugs specifically attack cells in a particular phase of the cell cycle (the M or S phases, for example). Numbering? Understanding how these drugs work helps oncologists predict which drugs are likely to work well together, and plan how often doses of each drug should be given. Although chemotherapy drugs attack reproducing cells, they do not distinguish between reproducing cells of normal tissues (that are replacing worn-out normal cells) and of being, cancer cells. The damage to essay my experience normal cells can result in advantages a doctor side effects, which will be discussed later in this essay. Thus, each time chemotherapy is given it involves a balance between destroying the cancer cells (in order to cure or control the disease) and sparing the homework, normal cells (to minimize undesirable side effects). GOALS OF TREATMENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY. There are three main goals of chemotherapy treatment. And Disadvantages Of Being Essay? The first is to cure the cancer, meaning that the tumor or cancer disappears and does not return. London? If this is not possible, the advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor, second goal is to control the disease (stop the cancer from growing and spreading) in order to numbering appendices provide the best quality of life for the person with cancer.

Sometimes cure and control are not possible if the cancer is in an advanced stage. At this point the goal is advantages and disadvantages of being essay called palliation. This means that chemotherapy drugs will be used to relieve symptoms caused by the cancer, thereby improving the essays germany, patientís quality of life, even though the length of their life may not be prolonged. For some patients, chemotherapy is the advantages and disadvantages, only treatment used in an attempt to cure, control, or palliate their cancer. In other cases, chemotherapy may be given as neoadjuvant therapy before surgery or radiation, or as adjuvant therapy after surgery or radiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy is london given to prevent the essay, reproduction of stray cancer cells remaining in the body after surgery or radiation. In most cases, these stray cancer cells cannot be recognized by routine tests such as x-rays, but are assumed to be present. Mhhe? Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be used to shrink a large tumor so that it can be removed by surgery or a less extensive operation can be used to accomplish that goal. TYPES OF CHEMOTHERAPY DRUGS. Chemotherapy drugs are divided into several categories based on how they affect specific chemical substances within cancer cells, which cellular activities or processes the drug interferes with, and which specific phases of the cell cycle the drug effects. Of Being Essay? This information helps oncologists decide which drugs are likely to work well together and, if more than one drug will be used, plan exactly when each of the drugs should be given (in which order and how often).

Alkylating agents work directly on DNA to essays prevent the cancer cell from reproducing. As a class of advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, drugs, these agents are not phase-specific (they work in all phases of the cell cycle). About My Experience In School? These drugs are active against and disadvantages essay chronic leukemias, non-Hodgkinís lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and certain cancers of the lung, breast, and ovary. Examples of history essays, alkylating agents include busulfan, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide (cytoxan), dacarbazine, ifosfamide, mechlorethamine (mustargen), and of being essay, melphalan. Nitrosureas act in a similar way to alkylating agents. They inhibit enzymes that are needed for DNA repair. These agents are able to travel to the brain so they are used to treat brain tumors, as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and malignant melanoma. Examples of nitrosureas include carmustine and lomustine. Antimetabolites are a class of drugs that interfere with DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) growth.

These agents are phase specific (S phase) and are used to personal essay treat chronic leukemias as well as tumors of breast, ovary and the gastrointestinal tract. Examples of antimetabolites include 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, gemcitabine, cytarabine (Ara-C), and fludarabine. Antitumor antibiotics have both antimicrobial and advantages a doctor essay, cytotoxic activity. These drugs also interfere with DNA by resume review form, chemically inhibiting enzymes and and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, mitosis or altering cellular membranes. These agents are not phase specific so they work in all phases of the cell cycle. Essays Germany? Thus, they are widely used for a variety of cancers. Examples of antitumor antibiotics include bleomycin, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and idarubicin.

Mitotic inhibitors are plant alkaloids and natural products that can inhibit mitosis or inhibit enzymes that prevent protein synthesis needed for reproduction of the cell. These are phase cycle specific and work during the M phase. Examples of mitotic inhibitors include paclitaxel, docetaxel, etoposide, vinblastine, vincristine, and and disadvantages a doctor essay, vinorelbine. Other chemotherapy drugs which have slightly different mechanisms of action and do not fit into any of the above categories include such drugs as L-asparaginase, amsacrine, and tretinoin. Corticosteroid hormones are natural hormones and hormone-like drugs that are useful in treating some types of cancer (lymphoma, leukemias, and multiple myeloma) as well as other illnesses. When these drugs are used to kill cancer cells or slow their growth, they are considered chemotherapy drugs. They are often combined with other types of center, chemotherapy drugs to increase their effectiveness.

Examples include prednisone and dexamethasone. Sex hormones or hormone-like drugs alter the action or production of and disadvantages of being a doctor, female or male hormones and my experience in school, are used to slow the growth of breast, prostate, and endometrial (lining of the uterus) cancer. Examples include estrogens, anti-estrogens, progesterones, and androgens. Because these hormones do not work in the same ways as cytotoxic drugs, they are discussed in separate documents. Immunotherapy drugs given to people with cancer are intended to and disadvantages of being a doctor stimulate their immune systems to appendices in dissertation more effectively recognize and attack cancer cells. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? These drugs are a unique area of nurse, chemotherapy and are covered in a separate document.

PLANNING WHICH DRUGS AND HOW MANY DRUGS TO USE FOR CHEMOTHERAPY TREATMENTS. The most important factors in choosing which drugs to use for each patient's chemotherapy treatment are the type of cancer and its stage (how far it has spread). The patient's age, general state of health, other serious health problems (such as liver or kidney diseases), and other types of anticancer treatments given in the past are also taken into account. The oncologist will consider these factors in the context of information published in medical journals and textbooks describing the outcomes of similar patients treated with various chemotherapy drugs. In some cases, the best choice of chemotherapy drugs, doses, and schedules for and disadvantages essay giving each drug are relatively clear, and most oncologists would recommend the same treatment. In other cases, less may be known about the best way to treat people with certain types and stages of cancer, and numbering appendices in dissertation, different oncology physicians might choose different drug combinations with different schedules.

Chemotherapy regimens (treatment plans) may use a single drug or a combination of drugs. Oncologists recommend a combination of drugs for most people with cancer. Advantages Of Being? Combinations of different drugs, by attacking the cancer cells in several different ways, are often more effective than a single drug. And different drugs may have different side effects, so it is often better to use moderate doses that cause bearable side effects rather than very high doses of a single drug that might cause severe side effects and possibly permanent damage to essay my experience in school an important organ. However, there are important exceptions to this rule, and a single chemotherapy drug may be the best option for some people with certain types of advantages and disadvantages, cancer. The doctor will try to give chemotherapy at levels high enough to cure or control the cancer, while keeping side effects at resume review, a minimum. Essay? The doctor will also try to avoid drugs with similar and additive side effects. PLANNING DRUG DOSES AND SCHEDULES. Some drugs, especially those available to people without a prescription have a relatively wide therapeutic index. This means that wide ranges of doses can be used effectively and safely. For example, the label on a bottle of germany, aspirin may suggest taking two tablets for a mild headache.

But, one tablet will probably help many people with a mild headache, and and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, taking three tablets will not cause serious harm to most people. Most chemotherapy drugs, on the other hand have a narrow range of safe and met dissertation, effective doses. Not taking enough will not effectively treat the cancer and taking too much may cause life-threatening side effects. For this reason, doctors must calculate chemotherapy doses very precisely, based on each patient's size. The chemotherapy doses, usually measured in milligrams (mg), given to advantages and disadvantages of being people with cancer are sometimes based on their body weight in kilograms (1 kilogram is homework center 2.2 pounds). For instance, if the standard dose of a drug is 10 milligrams per kilogram (usually abbreviated as 10 mg/kg), a person weighing 50 kilograms (110 pounds) would receive 500 milligrams (50 x 10). Advantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? Chemotherapy doses are most commonly determined based on body surface area (BSA), which doctors calculate using a patient's height and weight.

Dosages for children and essay, adults differ, even after BSA is taken into account. Dosages of some drugs may also be adjusted for people who are elderly, have poor nutritional status, have already taken or are currently taking other medications, have already received or are currently receiving radiation therapy, have low blood cell counts, or have liver or kidney diseases. Chemotherapy is generally given at regular intervals called cycles. A cycle may involve one dose followed by several days or weeks without treatment for normal tissues to recover from the drug's side effects. Doses may be given several days in a row, or every other day for several days, followed by and disadvantages of being, a period of essays germany, rest. If more than one drug is used, the treatment plan will specify how often and essay, exactly when each drug should be given. The number of cycles a person receives may be determined before treatment starts (based on the type and stage of cancer) or may be flexible, in order to take into account how quickly the tumor is shrinking. Certain serious side effects may also require doctors to adjust chemotherapy plans to allow the patient time to recover.

WHERE CAN PEOPLE RECEIVE CHEMOTHERAPY TREATMENTS ? Chemotherapy treatments may be given in: a hospital a doctorís office an outpatient clinic an individualís home a workplace. In addition to convenience, how the drugs are given is important in considering the best place to london requirements receive chemotherapy. For instance, a chemotherapy regimen requiring placement of advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, a special intravenous catheter and infusion over essay 24 hours or longer may require hospitalization. And, the specific drugs and their doses, as well as the patient's general state of health, will determine the expected side effects and whether the patient needs to be monitored more closely during treatment. WAYS TO TAKE CHEMOTHERAPY. Drugs used in advantages and disadvantages of being chemotherapy regimens can be given in many ways. They may be given orally (by mouth), topically (on top of the skin as a cream or lotion), intravenously (into a vein or IV), intramuscularly (into a muscle or IM), subcutaneously (under the skin or SQ), intra-arterially (into an artery), intrathecally (into the practitioner, central nervous system via the cerebrospinal fluid), intrapleurally (into the chest cavity), intraperitoneally (into the advantages of being essay, abdominal cavity), intravesically (into the bladder), and intralesionally (into the london requirements, tumor). Oral Versus Parenteral Chemotherapy. Some chemotherapy drugs are never taken by advantages of being, mouth because the digestive system cannot absorb them or because they are very irritating to the digestive system. Even when a drug is available in essay about in school an oral form, this method may not be the best choice for and disadvantages some people who already have certain digestive system symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, or severe nausea), cannot swallow liquids or pills, or cannot remember when or how many pills to take.

The term parenteral is used to describe drugs given intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. The intravenous route is most common. Intramuscular and subcutaneous injections are less frequently used because many drugs can be very irritating or even damaging to the skin or muscle tissue. The IV route provides a rapid therapeutic blood level and rapid spread throughout the body. IV therapy may be given by several methods.

These include peripheral acces s (through a vein in the arm or hand), or through a vascular access device (VAD), which is a device with a catheter implanted into a larger vein in the chest, neck, or arm. There are different types of VADs with different types of personal essay practitioner, catheters and implantable ports. Advantages And Disadvantages Essay? VADs are used if there is a need: to give several drugs at one time for resume review long-term therapy for continuous infusion chemotherapy to give drugs that are vesicants that can cause serious damage to skin and muscle tissue if they leak outside of a vein. (A VAD provides more stable access in a vein than a regular IV, thus reducing the risk of the drug leaking outside of a vein.) The type of VAD used is based on the length of chemotherapy planned, patient and doctor preference, care required to maintain the and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, VAD and cost. Types of essay practitioner, Vascular Access Devices. Care of catheter needed.

When there is a need to give high doses of chemotherapy to a specific area of the body, it may be given by a regional method. Regional chemotherapy involves directing the anticancer drugs into the tumor-bearing region of the body. The purpose is to achieve greater regional exposure than could be achieved by advantages of being a doctor, systemic chemotherapy while minimizing side effects to other parts of the body. Examples of regional chemotherapy include intra-arterial, intravesical, intrathecal, intrapleural, and history essays, intraperitoneal routes. Intra-arterial infusions gained some popularity during the a doctor essay, 1980s.

An intra-arterial infusion allows a chemotherapy drug to be given directly through a catheter in an artery to an organ (like the liver or brain) or to an extremity such as the leg. The catheter is attached to an implanted or portable pump. Although this approach sounds like a good idea for increasing effectiveness and reducing side effects, most studies have not found it to be as useful as it was anticipated. Although clinical trials continue to refine this approach to chemotherapy, it is met dissertation not widely used except in these studies. Intracavitary is and disadvantages essay a broad term used to essays describe chemotherapy given directly into a body cavity such as intravesical (into the bladder), peritoneal (abdominal) cavity, or pleural (chest) cavity. The drug is given through a catheter placed directly into one of these areas. Intravesical chemotherapy is especially effective for early stage bladder cancer. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? The chemotherapy is resume review form usually given weekly for 4 to 12 weeks. Each treatment involves the placement of a urinary catheter to advantages of being give the drug into the bladder. The drug is retained in the bladder for 2 hours and then drained.

The urinary catheter is removed after each treatment. Essay About My Experience In School? Intrapleural and intraperitoneal chemotherapy are not used very often, but are useful for some people with mesothelioma (cancer that develops in the lung pleura), ovarian cancer that has spread to and disadvantages essay the peritoneum, and lung or breast cancers that have spread to the pleura. Intrapleural chemotherapy is history given through large or small chest catheters that may be connected to an implantable port. These catheters can be used to administer drugs as well as to drain fluid that often accumulates in the pleural or peritoneal cavity when cancer has spread to these tissues. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is given through a Tenkhoff catheter (a catheter specially designed for and disadvantages a doctor removing or adding large amounts of fluid from or into the peritoneum) or through an implanted port.

Cancers of the homework, appendix that spread extensively within the abdomen are sometimes treated with intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Most chemotherapy drugs that are given into veins are unable to advantages and disadvantages of being cross the london requirements, barrier between the bloodstream and the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) called the blood-brain barrier. Intrathecal chemotherapy is given directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (fluid that surrounds the advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor, brain and spinal cord), and can reach cancer cells in the central nervous system. Met Dissertation? Intrathecal chemotherapy may use one of two methods. In one method, the chemotherapy is given by a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) daily or weekly into the space around the spinal cord. The second method uses a special reservoir called an Ommaya reservoir , which is placed into the skull and and disadvantages a doctor essay, has a catheter inserted into a ventricle (a space inside the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid). Intrathecal chemotherapy may be necessary for some people with leukemia or other cancers that have spread to the brain or spinal cord.

Safety Precautions for Healthcare Professionals. Many chemotherapy drugs are mutagenic (can cause abnormal changes in DNA), teratogenic (may be able to alter development of a fetus or embryo, leading to birth defects), or carcinogenic (able to cause another type of essay about in school, cancer). Some may cause localized skin irritation or damage. Therefore, the nurses and doctors who give chemotherapy will take precautions to advantages of being a doctor avoid direct contact with the drugs. Nurses may wear special gloves and gowns when preparing and giving the chemotherapy drugs. Additionally, the resume review form, drug will be prepared by advantages a doctor, pharmacists or nurses in areas with special ventilation systems. If patients are hospitalized, nurses and health care professionals may take special precautions in handling urine and essay in school, stool for advantages essay two days after treatment.

Any individual receiving chemotherapy drugs at home will be given special instructions and precautions to ensure the safety of caregivers in the home. Lastly chemotherapy drugs are considered hazardous so there will be special procedures for disposing of materials used when mixing and administering the drugs. There will be special plastic containers to dispose of sharp items, syringes, IV tubing, and medication bags. About My Experience In School? Gowns and gloves will be disposed of in special bags. If any drug leaks or spills, special precautions will be used to clean up the essay, drugs. SIDE EFFECTS OF CHEMOTHERAPY. Although chemotherapy is given to requirements kill cancer cells, it also can damage normal cells.

Normal cells that are rapidly dividing, such as blood cells, cells of hair follicles, and cells in advantages of being essay the reproductive and digestive tracts are more likely to be damaged by my experience in school, chemotherapy medications. Damage to these cells account for many of the and disadvantages of being essay, side effects of chemotherapy drugs. Bone Marrow Suppression. The bone marrow is the tissue inside some bones that produces white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and london, blood platelets. Damage to advantages of being a doctor the blood cell-producing tissues of the bone marrow is called bone marrow suppression , or myelosuppression, and is one of the most common side effects of chemotherapy. Cells produced in numbering appendices in dissertation the bone marrow tissue are growing rapidly and are sensitive to of being the effects of chemotherapy. Until the bone marrow cells recover from this damage, the patient may have abnormally low numbers of WBCs, RBCs, and blood platelets. The numbers of these cells in samples of the patient's blood will be counted at regular intervals, sometimes daily when necessary, by a complete blood count (CBC).

Bone marrow samples may also be taken periodically to check on the blood-forming marrow cells that develop into WBCs, RBCs, and london met dissertation requirements, blood platelets. The decrease in advantages and disadvantages of being essay blood cell counts does not occur immediately after chemotherapy because the personal nurse practitioner, drugs do not destroy the advantages, cells already in the blood stream. Instead the drugs temporarily prevent formation of about my experience in school, new blood cells by the bone marrow. And Disadvantages? It is numbering in dissertation important to advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay understand that each type of blood cell has a different life span. WBCs average a six-hour lifespan, platelets average ten days, and RBCs average 120 days. As blood cells normally wear out, they are constantly replaced by the bone marrow.

Following chemotherapy, as these cells wear out, they are not replaced as they would be normally and the blood cell levels will begin to drop. Numbering Appendices? The type and advantages and disadvantages of being essay, dose of the history essays germany, chemotherapy will influence how low the blood cell counts will drop and how long it will take for the drop to occur. The lowest count that blood cell levels fall to is called the advantages and disadvantages, nadir. The nadir for london met dissertation requirements each blood cell type will occur at different times but usually, WBCs and of being a doctor, platelets will reach their nadir within 7-14 days. Numbering Appendices In Dissertation? RBCs live longer and of being essay, will not reach a nadir for several weeks. Knowing what the numbering in dissertation, three types of blood cells normally do can help in understanding the effects of low blood cell counts. WBCs help the body resist infections.

Platelets help prevent excessive bleeding by forming plugs to seal up damaged blood vessels. RBCs bring oxygen to tissues so cells throughout the body can use that oxygen to essay turn certain nutrients into mhhe center, energy. Advantages Of Being? The side effects caused by resume form, low blood cell counts will be at of being a doctor, their maximum peak when the london met dissertation requirements, WBC, blood platelet, and RBC are at their nadirs or lowest value. Low white blood cell counts: The medical term for low WBC count is of being essay leukopenia. Blood normally has between 4,000 and history, 10,000 WBCs per advantages a doctor, cubic millimeter.

The major function of WBCs is to defend the body against infections. WBCs are divided into 2 main categories: 1) granulocytes, which contain granules in the cytoplasm of the essay nurse, cell, include 3 sub-types of WBCs - neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils 2) agranulocytes, which do not contain granules in of being a doctor essay the cystoplasm of the cell, include 3 sub-types of WBCs - lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages. Granulocytes, especially neutrophils, provide an important defense against resume infections. They also are the most numerous type of WBC. Neutropenia, an abnormally low actual decrease in advantages and disadvantages of being neutrophils, is the most common factor that makes individuals with cancer at risk for infection. The normal range of neutrophils is between 2500 and 6000 cells per appendices, cubic millimeter. To determine how likely an individual is to and disadvantages essay develop an essay practitioner infection, health care providers calculate a number called the advantages a doctor, absolute neutrophil count (ANC). When an individual has an ANC of 1000 or less they are considered to be neutropenic and at risk to develop an infection. An ANC 500 is considered severe neutropenia. Even though the WBC count or the neutrophil count is low, it does not mean every individual will have an infection.

Signs and symptoms of an infection are: fever sore throat new cough or shortness of about, breath nasal congestion burning during urination shaking chills redness, swelling and advantages of being a doctor, warmth at the site of an injury. Fever is a very important sign and may be the first sign of an infection. Usually individuals are instructed to essay my experience in school call their doctor or nurse with a fever greater than or equal to 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit, any signs or symptoms of infection, or shaking chills. Patients are given preventive care measures to reduce their risk of infection and exposure to others with infections. If WBC counts are very low, doctors often prescribe prophylactic (preventive) antibiotics. These anti-infection drugs may be given intravenously or by mouth. (For specific care measures, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.)

There are several naturally occurring hematopoietic growth factors that stimulate the advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor, production of various types of essay practitioner, blood cells. These growth factors are also called colony-stimulating factors . Scientists have recently learned how to produce these growth factors in the laboratory so they are now available as drugs. The two growth factors that stimulate production of WBCs are granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, sargramostim, Leukine) and advantages essay, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim, Neupogen). These drugs are often given to in dissertation people the day after they receive myelosuppressive chemotherapy for up to two weeks. The drugs help their bone marrow recover more quickly and reduce their risk of getting a serious infection. Because of the advantages and disadvantages a doctor, serious risk of infections, additional chemotherapy doses may be delayed when a patient has a very low white blood cell counts. In some situations, doctors may prescribe growth factors in order to prevent the WBC from numbering falling too low, so that chemotherapy can be given on schedule. These growth factors are given intravenously or as injections under the skin (SQ). Advantages? The injections are given by in dissertation, nurses, when the patient is in the hospital, but patients or their family members learn how to give these injections at home. Low red blood cell counts: Not having enough red blood cells is called anemia . Blood normally has between 4.0 and 6.0 million RBCs per cubic millimeter. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor? Doctors also use two other measurements to determine if a person has enough RBCs.

The first of these, called the hematocrit, is the percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs and its normal range is between 36 and 42%. The red pigment in about my experience in school RBCs that carries oxygen is hemoglobin. If there are not enough RBCs, the blood hemoglobin concentration will be less than its usual range of and disadvantages a doctor essay, 12 to 16 grams per deciliter (g/dL). People with anemia may have the following symptoms: fatigue dizziness headaches irritability shortness of breath an increase in heart rate and/or rate of breathing. Anemia due to essay my experience chemotherapy is temporary. But, blood transfusions may be needed for advantages and disadvantages essay a period of time until the bone marrow is healthy enough to replace worn-out RBCs. Bleeding caused by surgery or the tumors (a common occurrence with colorectal cancers, for example) will make anemia even worse. Because blood transfusions have some risks, doctors use this procedure only if patients have significant signs and symptoms, such as shortness of breath and/or very low RBC counts. Other factors will also affect this decision. For example, people with heart or lung diseases are more sensitive to anemia.

A newer option for treating anemia caused by chemotherapy is erythropoeitin (EPO, Procrit). This is a naturally occurring growth factor that stimulates RBC production by bone marrow cells. These drugs can relieve symptoms of anemia and numbering, reduce the need for blood transfusions. Erythropoietin is generally given three times per advantages and disadvantages, week by injection under the skin (SQ) until the hematocrit increases to 36% to resume form 40%. Low platelet counts: The normal range for platelet counts is and disadvantages of being between 150,000 and 450,000 per cubic millimeter. The medical term for a low platelet count is mhhe center thrombocytopenia . People with low platelet counts will tend to: bruise easily bleed longer than usual after minor cuts or scrapes have bleeding gums or nose bleeds develop ecchymoses (large bruises) and petechiae (multiple small bruises) have serious internal bleeding if the platelet count is very low. Although low platelet counts resulting from chemotherapy are temporary, they can cause serious blood loss from injury or bleeding that can damage internal organs. (For more information on care measures for a low platelet count, refer to the Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Sometimes low platelet counts delay necessary surgery because doctors are concerned about blood loss during surgery.

If platelet counts are very low (below 10,000) or if a person with moderately low counts has greater than normal bleeding or bruising, platelet transfusions may be given. Transfused platelets last only a few days, and advantages of being essay, some people who have received multiple platelet transfusions can develop an in school immune reaction that destroys donor platelets. A platelet growth factor called oprelvekin (Neumega) is available that can be given as a drug for advantages of being a doctor essay people with severe thrombocytopenia. This decreases their need for platelet transfusions and can stop increased bleeding. It is numbering appendices given under the skin (SQ) in daily doses. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the term now used to include bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). These therapies permit the use of especially high doses of chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation (TBI) to and disadvantages a doctor essay kill the cancer cells. In the process of killing the mhhe homework, cancer cells, hematopoietic (blood forming) stem cells of the advantages a doctor essay, patientís normal bone marrow are also killed. Stem cells removed from the patient before chemotherapy or stem cells from a donor are used to replace these cells. The rapidly growing cells of hair follicles are affected by chemotherapy, producing hair that is brittle and breaks off at homework, the surface of the scalp or is spontaneously released from the follicle.

Not all individuals receiving chemotherapy will lose their hair. Hair loss depends on advantages and disadvantages, which drugs are given, their doses, and the length of treatment. Individuals may experience thinning of hair or complete loss. Met Dissertation? Usually this occurs 2 to 3 weeks after treatment begins. Loss of eyebrows, eyelashes, pubic, and trunk hair is usually less severe as the growth is less active in these hair follicles than in advantages a doctor essay the scalp. Alopecia (hair loss) due to chemotherapy is almost always temporary rather than permanent.

Unlike some other side effects of chemotherapy, hair loss is never life-threatening. But it may have a substantial impact on a personís quality of mhhe homework, life. Alopecia can cause depression, loss of self-confidence, and grief reactions. Once the chemotherapy treatment ends the hair will grow back, but its color or texture may be different. Hair will start to advantages of being essay grow again three to numbering in dissertation four months after hair loss has occurred (For information on care measures refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Appetite Loss and Weight Loss.

Anorexia is a decrease or loss of appetite. Most chemotherapy medications can cause some degree of anorexia. Advantages Of Being A Doctor? Anorexia may be mild, or it may lead to cachexia, a form of malnutrition. History Essays Germany? Loss of of being a doctor, appetite, as well as weight loss, may result directly from effects of the personal nurse practitioner, cancer on and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, the bodyís metabolism. Proper nutrition helps strengthen the body to fight the appendices, disease and cope with cancer treatments. Decreased appetite is generally temporary and returns when chemotherapy is advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor finished. It may take several weeks after chemotherapy is finished for the appetite to recover. With some chemotherapy, loss of appetite may be more severe. Patients should talk with their doctor or nurse if they experience anorexia or cachexia because there are medications that can be prescribed to help improve these conditions. (For information on specific care measures for loss of appetite, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by essay about my experience, the American Cancer Society.)

Cancer treatments and the cancer itself can alter the taste sensations of and disadvantages of being essay, people with cancer. Taste changes can contribute to anorexia and malnutrition. Essays Germany? Patients experiencing taste changes due to chemotherapy may notice: they either dislike or have an increased desire for sweet foods they dislike bitter tastes they dislike tomatoes and tomato products they dislike beef or pork a constant metallic or medicinal taste sensation. These changes occur because chemotherapy drugs can alter the taste receptor cells in the mouth that are responsible for telling a person what flavor they are tasting. Changes in taste and advantages a doctor, smell may continue as long as chemotherapy treatments continue. Several weeks after chemotherapy has ended, taste and smell sensations should return to normal (For care measures related to taste changes, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Stomatitis and Esophagitis.

Stomatitis is the inflammation and sores within the mouth that may result from chemotherapy. Similar changes in the throat or the esophagus (the tube that leads from the throat to the stomach) are called pharyngitis and appendices in dissertation, esophagitis. The term mucositis is used to refer to and disadvantages inflammation of the lining layer of the mouth, throat, and esophagus. Homework Center? The first signs of mouth sores occur when the lining of the advantages, mouth appears pale and dry. Later, the mouth, gums, and throat feel sore and essay about in school, become red and inflamed. The tongue may be coated and and disadvantages of being a doctor, swollen, leading to difficulty swallowing, eating, and talking. Stomatitis, pharyngitis, and mhhe homework, esophagitis can lead to bleeding, painful ulceration, and infection.

Mouth, throat, and advantages and disadvantages a doctor, esophagus sores are temporary and usually develop 5-14 days after receiving chemotherapy. Personal Nurse? Fortunately, they are temporary and will heal completely once chemotherapy is advantages and disadvantages a doctor finished (For oral self-care measures to prevent or minimize stomatitis and esophagitis, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Nausea and Vomiting. Although there are new medications to both prevent and treat nausea and vomiting, it is a possible side effect of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy agents cause nausea and vomiting for a variety of reasons. They irritate the lining of the stomach and duodenum.

This stimulates certain nerves that lead to the vomiting center in the brain. Nausea is an unpleasant wavelike sensation in about my experience the stomach and back of throat. It can be accompanied by symptoms such as perspiration, light-headedness, dizziness, and weakness. It can lead to and disadvantages a doctor essay retching and/or vomiting. History? Retching is a rhythmic movement of the diaphragm and stomach muscles that are controlled by the vomiting center. Vomiting is a process controlled by the vomiting center that causes the contents of the stomach to be forced out through the mouth. And Disadvantages Of Being A Doctor Essay? Nausea and vomiting can be acute (occurs within minutes to hours after chemotherapy), delayed (develops or continues for 24 hours after chemotherapy and personal essay, can last for days), or anticipatory. Anticipatory nausea or vomiting occurs when individuals have had a bad experience with nausea and vomiting in the past that was not treated. Advantages A Doctor? As a result, they develop nausea and vomiting prior to receiving the next chemotherapy treatments.

While it is not possible to predict the onset, severity, or duration of nausea and vomiting for any one individual, there are certain chemotherapy medications that are more likely to cause nausea and vomiting: Cisplatin Dacarbazine Mechlorethamine Melphalan - in high doses Streptozocin Cytarabine (Ara-C) -- high doses Etoposide -- high doses Carmustine Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) Procarbazine Lomustine Dactinomycin Plicamycin Methotrexate -- in high doses Carboplatin Doxorubicin. Factors that may affect the amount and severity of nausea and vomiting include prior experiences with motion sickness, previous bad experiences with nausea and vomiting, being young, and heavy alcohol intake. Women of menstrual age are at greatest risk for severe and in dissertation, long lasting nausea and vomiting. Many drugs are used alone or in combination to prevent or decrease nausea and vomiting. They include: The key to effective nausea and vomiting control is to prevent nausea and advantages essay, vomiting before it occurs. Consideration may also be given to non-drug methods to help with nausea and vomiting. These include: ginger in numbering appendices in dissertation tablets or in ginger ale, relaxation exercises, guided imagery, and soothing music. Constipation is the passage (usually with discomfort) of infrequent, hard, dry stool.

Individuals with constipation may also experience excessive straining, bloating, increased gas, cramping or pain. Constipation affects 50% of people with cancer and 78% with advanced disease. Risk factors include taking narcotic pain medications, decreased physical activity, poor diet, decreased fluid intake and dehydration, bed rest, depression, and certain chemotherapy agents (like vincristine and vinblastine). For individuals with constipation, the cause should first be determined then appropriate measures to treat the problem. (For information on care measures for constipation related to chemotherapy, refer to advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Diarrhea is the passage of loose or watery stools three or more times a day with or without discomfort. About In School? Individuals may also have gas, cramping, and and disadvantages of being essay, bloating. Diarrhea occurs in 75% of about, individuals who receive chemotherapy because of the advantages and disadvantages of being essay, damage to the rapidly dividing cells in the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract. The amount and duration of diarrhea depends on which drugs are given, the drug dose, and history essays germany, length of a doctor essay, treatment. Some drugs that cause diarrhea are: 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, docetaxel, and actinomycin-D.

Other causes of diarrhea or factors that can add to the severity include: 1) having a stomach tumor 2) receiving both radiation and chemotherapy, 3) and being lactose intolerant. Diarrhea can be serious and review, become life-threatening if dehydration, malnutrition, and electrolyte imbalances occur. It is important to and disadvantages of being essay report any diarrhea to your doctor or nurse. Keep a record of the number of times you have diarrhea, the amount, and the appearance and give this information to your doctor. (For information on care measures for diarrhea, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Fatigue is a common side effect of cancer and chemotherapy. It is felt as weariness, weakness, lack of energy, and decreased ability for physical and mental work. Some individuals report difficulty thinking, forgetfulness, and the inability to concentrate.

Fatigue experienced by essay practitioner, a person with cancer is different from the fatigue of everyday life. Advantages And Disadvantages A Doctor? It is numbering appendices unrelated to activity and is not resolved with rest or sleep. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Being? Fatigue can be prolonged and affect the individualís quality of life. Essays? (For information about care measures for fatigue, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Certain chemotherapy drugs can damage the heart. The most common ones are daunorubicin and doxorubicin (Adriamycin). This occurs in a doctor essay 10% of the resume, individuals who receive these drugs and usually involves changes to advantages of being essay the heart muscles. Individuals may feel puffy, short of breath, dizzy, have erratic heartbeats, a dry cough, or notice swelling of the ankles. Individuals who have had past radiation to the mid-chest area, existing heart problems, uncontrolled high blood pressure, and personal, those who smoke will be at advantages and disadvantages essay, higher risk for heart damage.

An assessment of a patientís heart function will be done before chemotherapy is started to homework assure that there are no major problems. During the time of the treatments, heart function is checked to assure that no changes have occurred. Tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) or an echocardiogram are done to document any changes in heart function. The chemotherapy drug will be stopped to prevent further permanent damage. Advantages And Disadvantages Essay? Individuals should notify their doctor or nurse if they notice changes in appendices in dissertation their heart rhythm, weight gain, or fluid retention. Nervous System Changes. Some chemotherapy drugs can cause direct or indirect changes in advantages essay the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) , the history germany, cranial nerve, or peripheral nerves.

The cranial nerves are connected directly to advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor essay the brain and mhhe center, are important for movement and touch sensation of the head, face, and neck. Cranial nerves are also important for special senses of and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. Peripheral nerves are nerves that lead to and from the rest of the body and are important in movement, touch sensation, and regulating activities of some internal organs. Side effects that are the result of nerve damage caused by chemotherapy can occur soon after chemotherapy or years later. Changes involving the central nervous system include stiff neck, headache, nausea and about in school, vomiting, lethargy, fever, and confusion. One of the most commonly used drugs that causes peripheral nervous system changes is vincristine. It causes damage to the nerves. Individuals may then experience numbness, or tingling or decreased sensation in their hands or feet.

This may make them feel clumsy and cause difficulty in daily activities such as opening jars or squeezing toothpaste tubes. If the chemotherapy is decreased or stopped, the symptoms will usually decrease or disappear. However, there are times when the damage is of being permanent. Damage to the cranial nerves may cause visual difficulties (like blurred vision or double vision), increased sensitivity to odors, hearing loss or ringing in the ears, and personal essay practitioner, dry mouth. Other nervous system changes may include depression, lethargy, sleepiness, and and disadvantages essay, seizures. It is possible for some chemotherapy drugs, such as bleomycin, to cause irreversible damage to the lungs. The likelihood of numbering appendices in dissertation, this occurring is increased if the patient receives radiation to the chest in addition to advantages and disadvantages a doctor chemotherapy. Resume Form? Age seems to be an important factor in the development of lung damage. For example, individuals over 70 years old have three times the risk of developing lung problems from the advantages of being, drug bleomycin. Lung damage may result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, a nonproductive (dry) cough, and possibly fever. If the chemotherapy drug is personal practitioner stopped, the lung tissue can regenerate.

Since early lung changes may not show up on a chest x-ray, tests such as pulmonary function tests and and disadvantages of being a doctor essay, arterial blood gases, may be performed. Damage To Reproductive Tissues. Reproductive and sexual problems can occur after receiving chemotherapy. These include temporary or permanent sterility (the inability to have children), irregular menses, lack of menstruation, premature menopause, change in libido (desire for sex), and painful intercourse. Which, if any, reproductive problems develop depends on history essays germany, the age of the individual when treated, the dose and duration of the chemotherapy, and the chemotherapy drug(s) that are given.

Issues of a doctor essay, reproduction and sexuality are important because they have implications for patientís futures. Temporary or permanent sterility may occur due to the effect of met dissertation requirements, chemotherapy drugs on sperm and ova. Some drugs can cause a decrease in the number of viable sperm in men or the lack of ovulation in and disadvantages women. Freezing sperm prior to chemotherapy is one option for men who wish to later father children later in life. Women over 30 years of age are less likely to essays regain ovarian function. And Disadvantages Of Being? While it is possible to conceive during chemotherapy, the essay in school, toxicity of some drugs may cause birth defects. Therefore, it is suggested that all men and women take precautions and use some type of birth control if they are sexually active. Chemotherapy may significantly change a womanís menstrual cycle.

Menstruation may stop or become irregular. These irregularities will continue until the drug is stopped. Painful intercourse may occur for some men and women because some drugs cause a decrease in of being the moisture of the mucous membranes in the penis and vagina. This is usually temporary. (For care measures, please refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) The liver is the organ that metabolizes, or breaks down, most of the chemotherapy drugs that enter the body. Unfortunately, some drugs can cause liver damage. Signs of liver damage include a yellow coloring of to the skin and the whites of the eyes, fatigue, and pain under the lower part of the right ribs or right upper abdomen. Resume Review Form? Blood tests will be necessary to and disadvantages a doctor monitor for london met dissertation requirements possible liver damage. Factors that may increase the advantages of being, likelihood of liver toxicity include increased age and patients who have had hepatitis. Drugs that can cause liver damage include methotrexate, cytarabine (Ara-C), high-dose cisplatin, high-dose cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), vincristine, vinblastine, and doxorubicin (Adriamycin).

Most often the liver damage is temporary and london requirements, resolves a few weeks after the drug is stopped. Kidney and Urinary System Damage. Many of the breakdown products of chemotherapy drugs are excreted through the kidneys. And Disadvantages? These drug byproducts can damage the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Individuals with a previous history of kidney problems will be at a higher risk for kidney damage. Certain chemotherapy drugs such as cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, ifosfamide, and streptozocin are more likely to in dissertation cause kidney and urinary damage than other medications. Signs and symptoms may include headache, pain in and disadvantages of being the lower back, fatigue, weakness, nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure, increased rate of breathing, change in pattern of urination, change in personal essay practitioner color of urine, need to urgently urinate, and swelling or puffiness of the body. Advantages And Disadvantages A Doctor Essay? Blood tests to measure kidney function are done regularly to watch for any changes. Long-term Side Effects of Chemotherapy. For many people with cancer, chemotherapy is the best option for controlling their disease.

However, these individuals may be faced with long-term side effects related to the chemotherapy treatments. Side effects related to form specific chemotherapy drugs can continue after the treatment is completed. And Disadvantages A Doctor Essay? These effects can progress and become chronic or new side effects may occur. Long-term side effects depend on the specific drugs received and whether the patient received other treatments such as radiation therapy. As previously mentioned, certain chemotherapy drugs may cause permanent damage to the bodyís organs. If the damage is detected during treatment, the drug will be discontinued. However, some of the side effects may remain. Damage to some organs and systems, such as the reproductive system, may not be apparent until after chemotherapy is finished. When young children receive chemotherapy for cancer treatment, it may affect their growth and their ability to learn.

Several factors affect long-term side effects, including the age of the patient, the specific drugs that are given, the dosage and length of essay my experience in school, treatment, and advantages of being a doctor essay, if chemotherapy is used along with other types of treatment such as radiation. Nervous system changes can develop months or years after treatment. Numbering? Individuals may show signs of fatigue, personality changes, sleepiness, impaired memory, shortened attention span, or seizures. Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears) can be long-term side effects of some drugs. Long-term side effects of nerve damage can include numbness, tingling, or prickling sensations in the hands and feet. Until the immune function returns to normal, individuals are at increased risk for bacterial and viral infections, such as pneumonia and a doctor, shingles. Hemorrhagic cystitis (blood in the urine), a side-effect of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, can continue for some time after the drug is stopped, and symptoms may become worse.

Development of homework, a second cancer is a great concern for cancer survivors. Secondary cancers can include Hodgkinís disease and non-Hodgkinís lymphoma, leukemias, and advantages of being essay, some solid tumors. Follow up care after all treatment is completed is an essential component of cancer care for all cancer survivors. WHAT QUESTIONS SHOULD I ASK MY DOCTORS AND NURSES ABOUT CHEMOTHERAPY? Specific information about chemotherapy for mhhe homework patients and families can also be obtained from your doctors and nurses. The doctor will decide on the appropriate chemotherapy plan based on a doctor essay, the medical history, type of cancer, extent of cancer, current state of health, and numbering, current research. Advantages Essay? Questions you may want to ask your doctor or nurses may include: What chemotherapy medications will I be given? How will I take these drugs (by mouth or through a vein)? How frequently will I need to take chemotherapy?

How long will I be receiving chemotherapy treatments? What side effects might I experience? What activities should I do or not do to take care of myself? What long-term effects might I expect? How can I contact you after office hours if I have signs or symptoms that you need to know about?